Updated June 7, 2018
1. FBI Report (San Francisco office) on the UC / FFWPU, September 1975
2. Napa Sentinel, March-April 3, 1992 Harry V. Martin and David Caul
“The Moonies – What Rev. Moon teaches the young”
3. Chicago Tribune, Monday, March 27, 1978 James Coates
“The Moonies: Government Files Trace Church from Sex Cult to Korean CIA”
4. New York Times Magazine, May 30, 1976 Berkeley Rice
“The pull of Sun Moon”
5. The Moon Organization Academic Network, Fall 1991 Daniel Junas
FBI Report on the Official and Unofficial Theology of the UC
FBI Report (San Francisco office) on the UC / FFWPU,
A letter from the Church of the Nazarene in Seoul, reproduced on pages 9-11 of this FBI Report gives an interesting summary of the official and the unofficial theology of the Unification Church.
Extract from the FBI report referring to the letter:
[Unknown] further provided a letter containing information about Sun-Myung Moon prepared by the Church of the Nazarene, Korean Mission, Box 63, Young Deung T.O., Seoul, Korea. The letter indicates that Mr. Moon is the founder of the Unification Church which is officially titled “The Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity“. Moon was born in Chung Ju, North Korea, in 1920. In his teenage years, Moon is said to have seen frequent visions and to have grown up surrounded by an atmosphere of mysticism. The letter indicates that he has divorced three wives having had one child by each of them. He was accused in 1955 of conducting a group sex orgie for which he served a three-month jail term. Moon founded his organization in 1954 basing it on his supposed religious visions. The letter alleges that actually Moon borrowed his doctrines from those taught at the Monastery of Israel.
The following doctrinal statement with [was] filed with the Korean Government by Moon’s Unification Association:
1) The one creator is the only God and father.
2) The only son, Jesus, is mankind’s savior.
3) The Second Advent of Jesus is in Korea.
4) Mankind shall become one united family centered around the event of the Second Coming.
5) Ultimate salvation rests upon the elimination of Hell and evil while establishing good and the Kingdom of Heaven.
The letter additionally states that the group also secretly observes such other beliefs and practices as the following:
1) Founder Moon is the Second Advent Jesus.
2) A believer receives a spiritual body by participating in a ceremony known as blood cleansing which is for women to have sexual intercourse with Moon and for men to have intercourse with such a woman. This idea of blood cleansing comes from the teaching that Eve committed immorality with the Serpent and she passes on to all of us serpent blood.
3) Secretly observed doctrines are Holy covenant and are of more value than the Bible.
4) Members who have experienced blood cleansing can produce sinless generation [children].
5) Founder Moon is sinless.
The letter indicates that, according to the National Religious Statistics published in 1969, the Unification group has 936 churches and 304,750 members in Korea. Leaders of other religious groups say that these figures are greatly exaggerated. There are no elders or ministers in the Unification Movement. The Unification group operates several business enterprises in Korea. A novel feature of Unification is mass wedding ceremonies which it performs. Once founder Moon joined 777 couples in wedlock. Mr. Moon has bought $100,000 ads in the New York Times newspaper to publicize his movement. Great and sweeping claims are made by the Unification members concerning their strength in Korea. Actually, they are not an important influence in Korean society. One may travel extensively in Korea and never see one of their meeting centers or never meet a follower of Reverend Moon.
By Harry V. Martin and David Caul Napa Sentinel March-April 3, 1992
2. How they recruit the young people
3. What Rev. Moon teaches the young
4. Seeking to influence the media
5. Who is behind the movement
6. Influential friends in high places
7. Young girl wins back her will
3. What Rev. Moon teaches the young
To best understand the Moonies, one must look at their doctrine. The Unification Church of Reverend Sun Myung Moon warns Christians that they will be swept away. In his Divine Principle, the foundation of his teachings, Rev. Moon claims that Christians today will be like the priests and rabbis of Jesus’ day, the “first to persecute the Messiah”. He says that Christians will cling to their archaic beliefs and will be blind to the truths of the new age. “Innumerable Christians of today are dashing on the way which they think will lead them to the Kingdom of Heaven. Nevertheless, the road is apt to lead them into hell.” He says, Christians must accept the revelations within the Divine Principle and the Lord of the Second Advent or be damned.
Moon leaves no room in his philosophy for doubt about where he and Korea stand in the eyes of God. Moon claims he is the new Messiah and Korea is God’s chosen nation. “This is the culmination of God’s 6000 year quest to restore man from the fall of Adam.” Moon tells his followers and captives that God revealed this to him when he was a young man. He states, “God said, ‘You are the son I have been seeking, the one who can begin my eternal history’.”
Moon’s Divine Principle teaches that man can be restored to original goodness by restoring Adam, Eve, and three archangels. “Adam’s fall resulted from Eve’s being seduced by the archangel Lucifer, who was jealous because God gave Eve to Adam instead of to him.” He claims that [the positions of] Adam, Eve and the archangels are occupied by persons, nations and movements identified by Moon. “Ultimately, Adam must dominate after successfully going through three stages: formation, growth, and perfection. If Eve or an archangel is at a higher stage than Adam, they must help restore Adam to perfection so he can assume his rightful role in the unified system of things.
Moon sees himself as the Perfect Adam, so he must be obeyed without question. He claims that Jesus was the most important Adam between the original one and Moon, attaining spiritual perfection but a “flawed” Messiah. Moon is the reincarnation of Jesus only more perfect.
Moon teaches his followers and captives that Jesus’ mission was foredoomed by John the Baptist, who spent his time baptizing people instead of becoming Jesus’ obedient disciple for influencing the politics of the Herod regime, and even killing the enemies of Christ. Though Christian beliefs portrays the Virgin birth, Moon teaches that Jesus was a child of adultery, not immaculate conception. “Mary was impregnated by Zachariah (John the Baptist’s father). Jesus had an unhappy home life because Joseph was jealous of Zachariah and resented Jesus.”
Moon also states, “When Jesus grew up he failed as a leader because he was unable to love his disciples enough to motivate them to kill for him or die in his place.” Moon says that his love is not weak, like he portrays Jesus. “Since Jesus was incapable of perfect love, owing to his unwholesome upbringing, he was also unable to marry as intended by God,” Moon said. “The reason why Jesus died was because he couldn’t have a bride. Because there was no preparation of a bride to receive Jesus, that was the cause of his death.”
Moon sees Christian churches as furthering Satan’s power. “Israel was God’s chosen nation, but the Jews, falling prey to Satan’s power, rejected Jesus. God punished them with centuries of suffering, and finally cleansed them by killing six million in World War II. But the Jews had missed their chance. God had to find a new Messiah and a new Adam nation because it is God’s principle not to use the same people and the same territory twice,” Moon teaches. “Korea was ideally suited for several reasons. It is a peninsula, physically resembling the male sex organ. Like the Italian peninsula, cultures of islands and continents can mingle there to form a unified civilization corresponding to the Roman Empire.”
Moon says that Japan is in the position of Eve. “Being only an island country, it cannot be Adam. It yearns for male-like peninsular Korea on the mainland.” Moon says the Japanese generally are effeminate people who want to be dominated by stronger, manly powers. “But as Eve prevailed over Adam in the Fall, Japan prevailed over Korea in the colonial period. And like Eve in the Fall, Japan became a Satanic power.”
The United States is viewed by Moon as an archangel country. “The archangel America helped the Adam country Korea by sending Christian missionaries, rescuing it from Japanese rule, and stopping the advance of Satan’s Adam, Communist North Korea. America is too arrogant and individualistic, however. It cannot remain the world’s leader, because God has destined America to serve Korea,” Moon teaches. Moon states that the battlefield for the showdown between God and Satan would be Korea. “God’s chosen people would triumph through suffering. America, Japan, and all other nations could be restored by helping Korea’s anti-Communist cause. Only in Korea could the civilizations of East and West be unified. In the end, even North Korea’s Kim Il Sung could be restored if he answered the call to follow the Divine Principle.
Moon was born in North Korea in 1920. He was raised by a Presbyterian in a middle-class family, was a good student, and studied engineering at a [Technical High School associated with Waseda] university in Japan during World War II. He was married in  and divorced in [January 1957]. He was arrested twice by the Communist government [in August 1946 and on February 22,1948] in North Korea for [disturbing the morals of society and] activities as an evangelist and was sentenced to five years in prison [for bigamy] in [April 1948]. He was released [by the prison guards as the] U.S. forces [approached] during the Korean War. He founded his church in 1954.
Moon was reported to be a ritual womanizer. Reportedly, young girls underwent sexual initiation into his cult; he would thus purge them of the Satanic spirits that inhabited Eve and lead them to the Divine Principle. He was jailed for three months in 1955 [during the Ewha Woman’s University sex scandal] South Korean authorities on charges of draft evasion [in court on September 20, Moon admitted to judge Kang that he had falsely raised his age to avoid military service], forgery, pseudo-religion and false imprisonment of a [22-year old female] university coed compelled to adopt his religion. [He was sentenced to two years in jail, but after three months he was suddenly released at night and later declared innocent.]
Moon teaches that lying is necessary when one is doing God’s work, whether selling flowers in the street or testifying under oath. “The truth is what the Son of God says it is. At the Garden of Eden, evil triumphed by deceiving goodness. To restore original perfection, goodness must now deceive evil. Even God lies very often.”
Link to full article:
Moon church traced from sex cult
Chicago Tribune, Monday, March 27, 1978 Section 1 3
The Moonies: Government Files Trace Church from Sex Cult to Korean CIA
Rev. Sun Myung Moon’s controversial Unification Church: Is it a front?
St Petersburg Independent, Tuesday March 28, 1978
The text is the same in both publications
By JAMES COATES
WASHINGTON — Once-secret government files released by a House subcommittee trace the so-called “Moonie” church from its origins as a small-time Korean sex cult to a worldwide organization operated by the Korean Central Intelligence Agency.
The documents, soon to be the subject of public hearings, indicate the Uniﬁcation (Moonie) Church was used by the Korean government as part of a lobbying effort in the U.S. Congress.
Diplomatic cables said that the church patriarch, Rev. Sun Myung Moon, headed a Korean cult that “interprets the Bible in sexual terms.” The KCIA decided to use Moon in a scheme that grew to include other Koreans bribing congressmen, the documents said.
A U.S. Central intelligence Agency report, marked “unevaluated” and written in February 1963, said that Lt. Col. Bo Hi Pak of the Korean army was working to expand the church into Washington under the direction of Kim Chung-pil, the director of the KCIA.
A cable sent to Washington from the American embassy in Seoul on Aug. 26, 1966, describes an initiation ceremony for the church involving sexual relations. The cable said the church refers to such initiation as “baptizing.”
The author of the cable quoted Thomas Chung, president of the Korean Students’ Association in Washington, as saying: “Colonel Pak was in trouble because he had attempted to initiate into his church (i.e. to have sexual relations with) the wife of a visiting ROK (Korean government) official (either the minister of national defense or the chief of staff).”
The cable continued: “According to Chung, the matter had been hushed up, but only with difficulty, and Pak had nearly lost his job because of it.”
That cable also quotes another intelligence source: “He said that the church interprets the Bible in sexual terms and maintains that religious experience is interrelated with sex. MUN Son-myong (sic), leader of the church, was once arrested because of the sexual practices of the organization.”
Spokesmen for Moon have acknowledged that the religious leader was arrested but maintained he was cleared of the charges.
The 1963 CIA document explained that the Korean intelligence agency planned to open a branch of the Uniﬁcation Church (also called Tong Il) in Washington with Bo Hi Pak as the real leader.
Pak was to organize the church in America, the CIA report said, through an organization called the Korean Cultural and Freedom Foundation. The authors of the CIA in-house reports said their sources disclosed in 1963 that the KCIA chief, Kim Chung-p’il, was using the church to advance his own political moves in Korea. The KCIA director was a ringleader in the coup that installed Park Chung Hee as president.’
Summaries of other top-secret U.S. intelligence reports released by Rep. Donald Fraser, D-Minn., indicate that in 1970 President Park Chung Hee launched a plan to use the Uniﬁcation Church as part of the Korean effort to stop the U.S. from pulling troops out of the country.
One summary said that President Park planned to use Bo Hi Pak to operate lobbying efforts through the church, while the millionaire socialite, Tongsun Park, focused his efforts on entertaining members of Congress and passing out gifts.
In the final months of the Nixon Administration, the Uniﬁcation Church held vigils outside the White House to oppose impeachment moves. Other Moonies walked the halls of Capitol Hill and urged congressmen to support Nixon and foreign aid for Korea.
Most church members are young unmarried adults who live in dormitories and devote their time to fundraising and other church-related activities in exchange for food, clothing and shelter. Church members and investigators who have infiltrated the church in recent years say that the Moonies live by a strict moral code that forbids sexual activity outside marriage.
However, the State Department reports — based on investigations of the Unification Church in the 1960s — paint a different picture.
At the time of the alleged effort to “baptize” a top official’s wife, Pak was assistant military attache at the Korean embassy in Washington.
Pak has told the House Subcommittee on U.S. Korean Relations that he left the embassy in 1964 to become affiliated with the Korean Cultural and Freedom Foundation. He is now president of the foundation and acts as interpreter for Moon.
During a lengthy and emotional speech before the House subcommittee, Pak branded as false all charges about his ties with the KCIA. He accused the House and the U.S. press of persecuting members of the Uniﬁcation faith and trying to “crucify” Moon.
Pak ridiculed assertions that the Moon religion is actually a foreign affairs arm of the Korean Intelligence Agency.
“This subcommittee, in the powerful name of the US Congress, gave unqualified authenticity to a so-called intelligence report, which is trash, total lies, distorted, and vicious in nature,” Pak said.
He said that the Moon church is no more political than Catholic, Protestant, or Jewish congregations in the United States. Those churches, Pak said, actively and lawfully champion political causes as the Unification Church does.
Pak was not questioned about the alleged sexual practices. Fraser announced he will return Pak to the witness stand April 11 for more testimony.
Chicago Tribune, Monday, March 27, 1978 Section 1 3
Suzi Park Thomson denies KCIA link, assails probers
WASHINGTON [UPI] —Suzi Park Thomson, linked in news leaks of congressional testimony with Washington operations of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency [KCIA], says she has become a “prisoner” in her home and wants a chance to challenge the stories in public.
Mrs. Thomson, a Korean-born United States citizen, accused Rep. Donald Fraser [D., Minn.] of “character assassination” and said she has asked to testify under oath in an open hearing before his House International Organizations Subcommittee.
The subcommittee is one of several congressional panels looking into alleged Korean influence-buying operations in Congress. Mrs. Thomson was an aide to House Speaker Carl Albert [D., Okla.] for five years until his retirement in 1976.
She cited Fraser’s release of summaries of intelligence reports suggesting she was “connected” with the KCIA.
“CONNECTED!” she exclaimed scornfully. “Connected how? They should prove what kind of connections.”
Such allegations have deprived her of work on Capitol Hill and of many of the friends she used to entertain in her southwest Washington apartment, she said.
She said she has been “harassed and persecuted” by investigators for two House committees— the House Ethics Committee and Fraser’s panel.
“I’m a prisoner in my own home.” she said. “I can’t go out. I’m harassed by everybody.”
The pull of Sun Moon
Thousands of young Americans believe he has led them to truth and love. Hundreds of parents have formed a national organization to get back their children.
New York Times Magazine May 30, 1976 Berkeley Rice
This Tuesday evening, God willing, and perhaps helping, the Rev. Sun Myung Moon will join such illustrious ancestors as Babe Ruth, Joe Louis, Johnny Unitas, Pope Paul VI, and Billy Graham as a featured performer at Yankee Stadium. Over the past few weeks New Yorkers have grown accustomed to Moon’s face smiling at them from thousands of leaflets handed out by cheerful young “Moonies.” The leaflets, posters, and radio and TV ads invite everyone to attend Moon’s Bicentennial God Bless America Festival. Moon hopes to draw 200,000 people to the stadium (even though it will hold only 50,000). Those who get in will be treated to a rousing revival meeting, with classical fan dances by the Korean Folk Ballet, inspiring songs by Moon’s New Hope singers, and a lengthy, energetic speech in Korean by Moon. The leaders of Moon’s Unification Church say the rally will promote the spiritual significance of the Bicentennial, and help “restore confidence in the American dream.” But it will also celebrate the Second Coming of the millionaire-evangelist who proclaims himself the new Messiah.
In a country whose young tripped out radical politics or drugs in the 60’s, religious cults seem to be the opiate of the 70’s. Several are prospering but Sun Myung Moon’s Unification Church is by far the hottest – and most controversial. It now has 30,000 followers, 5,000 members, has fund raising and recruiting centers at 100 American cities and college campuses and takes in more than $10 million a year in donations and sales from solicitations.
To many anguished parents who have lost their children to him, however, this new Messiah is a spiritual fraud, a devil who enslaves young Americans by means of brainwashing and mind control. Parents have tried to rescue or kidnap their sons and daughters from his communes, but often the kids can’t be found, or refuse to come home.
The Moon phenomenon, “his Moonies and the controversy they have caused are exemplified by the struggle of Mr. and Mrs. Elton Helander, of Guilford, Conn., who have been fighting the church since their daughter Wendy joined it two years ago at age 18. Until then Wendy had led a well-rounded and unremarkable life. She was pretty, healthy and bright enough to complete high school in three and a half years, with time to spare for cheerleading, skiing and sewing. “She had so much to offer,” says her mother, “and her morals were so good. She was dead against drugs and sex and anything like that.” As a college freshman, she seemed a bit “confused” to her mother, perhaps because she became interested in such exotic notions as meditation and eastern philosophy. Wendy later described herself that fall as an idealist, troubled by the suffering and violence in the world, and searching for a “meaningful life.”
Approached by Moon’s campus recruiters, Wendy attended a Unification weekend in Maine, where the members “radiated so much love, so much warmth” that she soon decided her search had ended. She called her mother breathlessly to ask if she had heard the “good news.”
“What good news?” asked Mrs. Helander.
“That there is a new Messiah on this Earth,” said Wendy.
When she came home at Christmas, her mother found her troubled. “She cried a good deal of the time, and yet she was telling me how happy she was.” About that time, Wendy gave away many of her cherished possessions to fellow members of what she began calling “the Family.” She dropped out of college, joining the church as a full-time member.
“I never had any questions,” she said later. “It all made sense.” It did not make sense to her parents, and eventually they abducted her from a church center and had her “deprogrammed” by Ted Patrick, a man who specializes in such treatment, to cure her of Moon’s spell. It didn’t work. She left home soon after taking only a toothbrush, and returned to the fold. “I think the poor kid was afraid,” said her mother. “They had her mind all along.”
The Helanders brought suit against the Unification Church, which refused even to produce Wendy in court, because of the “trauma” she would suffer. At the trial, her lawyer argued that Wendy had not been brainwashed and was not under the church’s control. “Her big crime,” he told the court, “has been believing what she chooses to believe.” Both sides produced members or ex-members who testified about the independence or lack of it. Both sides produced psychiatrists who argued about the state of Wendy’s mind. The judge finally dismissed the case, ruling that the parents had not proved the church had exercised “control or restraint over her person.”
The trial left no one happy, Mrs. Helander said. “Our daughter is not our daughter any more.” Wendy said she still loved her parents, but no longer trusted them. She was right. Last fall, while visiting Wendy at a church training center, her parents took her for a walk near a back road. A car pulled up, and Wendy was shoved in and driven away. She was held captive for about three months, moved frequently to avoid detection, and continually deprogrammed. However, one of those who worked on her was a Moonie plant. With his help they both escaped and returned to the church.
The Helanders have not seen or heard from Wendy since, and the affair has left them emotionally and financially devastated. “We were such a quiet, happy family before this happened,” says Mrs. Helander, “but it’s ruined our lives.” They have spent close to $40,000 on legal fees, deprogramming and other costs, and are heavily in debt. Yet they have not given up hope: “All we want for our daughter is her freedom. We’ve got to save her mind.” Wendy doesn’t want to be saved, but still hopes for an eventual reconciliation if they “are ready to accept the fact that this is where I want to be.”
In cases like Wendy’s, it is not easy to tell the good guys from the bad. Do good guys kidnap? Or, bad guys rescue? Or, do both do both? Both sides claim to have truth, justice and love on their side. Whoever’s right, thousands of young Americans like Wendy have left their homes, schools and jobs to join Moon’s crusade. Hundreds of parents like the Helanders have formed a national organization to fight the church and free their children from its control. And the church, in turn, has counter attacked, trying to achieve respectability through community good will and political influence.
To improve its image, Sun Myung Moon’s church hired Burson-Marstellar, the same P.R. firm that has done work for Exxon and General Motors. (The relationship ended, in part, because the firm began to worry about how the account might affect its own image). And they make great efforts to win friends in Washington. Groups of Moonies walk the halls of Capitol Hill offering tea and flowers to Congressmen and trying to engage them in chats about God and His purpose in America. With bipartisan agility Moon has had his picture taken (and used repeatedly in church publications) with such senators as Hubert Humphrey, Edward Kennedy, Strom Thurmond and James Buckley. With the enthusiastic support of Representative Richard Ichord, former chairman of the Internal Security Committee, Moon recently presented a speech on “God’s Plan for America ” in the House Caucus Room. (Perhaps the Congressmen should listen. Moon once told a group of trainees: “If the United States continues its corruption, and we find among the Senators and Congressmen no one useful for our purposes, we can make senators and Congressmen out of our members.)
The church operates a political affiliate in Washington called Freedom Leadership Foundation, which lobbies for United States military and economic support for South Korea; hence, some critics suspect that Moon’s movement is directed or subsidized by the South Korean C.I.A., a charge the church denies. It is interesting however, that two of Moon’s closest aides are former Korean Army colonels who served as military attaches in the South Korean Embassy in Washington. Indeed, a House committee plans hearings next month on possible attempts by South Korea to influence American politics through the Moon movement.
Because of complaints about the Unification Church’s interest in politics, and its emphasis on fund raising, various Federal, state and local government agencies have begun questioning its claims as a religious movement. The Internal Revenue Service has not taken action against it – on complaints about its $10 million income tax exemption – but the U.S. Immigration Service has – ordering the deportation of 600 Moonies, mostly from Japan, for illegal soliciting. Their visas had been granted for “religious education and training.” But the Immigration official in charge of the case subsequently found little evidence of formal religious education: “As nearly as we can determine their “training” consists of soliciting funds and selling some items.”
As part of its campaign to gain respectability, the church has spawned several quasi academic front organizations ostensibly devoted to the search for world peace and freedom. Though they are said to be independent, these groups generally share the leadership of Sun Myung Moon and other church officials. One group, the International Cultural Foundation, held its annual conference on “the unity of the sciences” last fall at New York’s Waldorf Astoria, drawing several hundred scientists and scholars, including a few Nobel laureates. While anti-Moon parents picketed outside with placards comparing Moon to Hitler and Mussolini, the scholars debated “the standard of values in society.” The letters of invitation – offering to pay all expenses, plus $3,000 for co-chairmen – failed to mention that the affair was sponsored by the Unification Church or that Sun Myung Moon would give the opening address. When they learned of Moon’s involvement, many of those invited – Buckminister Fuller, Norman Cousins and several others who had agreed to serve as advisers for the conference – withdrew.
Yet, obviously, not everyone feels this way about Sun Myung Moon. Many parents either approve of or don’t mind their children’s joining his cult. Some figure its better than drugs, or drifting aimlessly around the country. Others look with favor upon it as a Christian youth movement.
While church members accept Moon’s theology as revealed truth, nonmembers generally find it a mind boggling mixture of Pentecostal Christianity, Eastern mysticism, anti-communism, pop psychology and Meta physics. According to “Divine Principle,” Moon’s book of revelations, God intended Adam and Eve to marry and have perfect children, thereby establishing the Kingdom of Heaven on Earth. But Satan, embodied in the snake, seduced Eve, who in turn passed her impurity on to Adam, bringing about the Fall of Man. God then sent Jesus to redeem mankind from sin, but Jesus also bungled His mission, and died before He could marry and father a new race of perfect children. The time has now come for a second Christ who will finally fulfill God’s original plan. The Unification Church coyly refuses to identify the new Messiah, but like Moon, he just happens to have been born in Korea in 1920. As told by Moon, and embellished in successive accounts by his disciples, the story of his life presents impressive qualifications for the position of Messiah. “From childhood I was clairvoyant,” he once told a group of followers. “I could see through people, see their spirits.” When he was 12, he began praying for extraordinary things,” and must have caught God’s attention. At 16, while he was praying on a mountainside on Easter morning, Jesus appeared to him in a vision and called upon him to carry out His unfinished task.
After further visionary chats with Moses, Buddha and assorted biblical luminaries, Moon began preaching his own version of Messianic Christianity. In 1954, self ordained, he founded the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity. As his cult grew, Moon ran afoul of the civil and religious authorities, a pattern that continues to plague him in this country. He was excommunicated by his own Presbyterian Church, and arrested various times by the police – for anti-communist activities, according to Moon; on morals charges, according to his Korean critics, involving “purification” rites with female initiates.
Moon’s church has thrived under the military dictatorship of South Korea’s Gen. Park Chung Hee. While the Park regime has suppressed, jailed or exiled hundreds of critics, particularly among the clergy, it has formed a friendly association with the Unification Church. Moon preaches anti-communism and holds mass-rallies in support of the government; Park extends various forms of official support, sending senior civil servants and military officers to Unification “leadership seminars,” for example. A man of many parts, Moon has managed to divert enough attention from spiritual affairs to build an industrial conglomerate in Korea with sales of $15 million a year, drawing in part on the voluntary labor of his Korean followers. Moon’s factories turn out heavy machinery, titanium, paint, pharmaceuticals, marble vases, shotguns and ginseng tea.
Since moving to the United States in 1973, the short, stocky, moonfaced evangelist, now 56, has settled with his wife, eight children and a staff of 35 Moonies in a 25 room mansion overlooking the Hudson River in Irvington, NY. When not looking after his religious and corporate affairs, he spends a good deal of time fishing on his 50 foot cabin cruiser, New Hope. Church officials bristle at criticism of Moon’s luxuries. “Why must a religious leader be an ascetic?” asks one. “Look at the Pope,” says another. “Followers of many religions honor their spiritual leader with physical comforts worthy of the dignity of his position. I trust Reverend Moon’s relationship with God, so I don’t object to his life style.”
Though Moon takes little part in the church’s day-to-day operations and meets only occasionally with its leaders, he supposedly approves all major decisions himself. “What he says goes!” says a nonmember who has dealt with the movement’s top officials.
At his rare public appearances, Moon is usually introduced by Unification’s president, Neil Salonen, 31, a smooth speaker who tells audiences this country is going to hell because of all the crime, suicide, alcoholism, divorce, sex, drug abuse, college radicals and communists. He says God has sent the Rev. Mr. Moon to the United States to solve these problems and to immobilize an ideological army of young people to unite the world in a new age of faith.”
Because Moon addresses his American followers only in Korean, outsiders can’t appreciate his charisma. His speeches often run two hours or longer and are full of hellfire and Korean brimstone punctuated with kicks, karate chops, laughter and tears. (One reporter calls the performance a “kung fu tantrum.” Through his translator, a former South Korean Army colonel named Bo Hi Pak, Moon tells his audiences of the approaching apocalypse, and offers them one last chance for salvation: “You can be the citizens of the Kingdom of Heaven if you meet the coming Messiah. He is your hope and the only hope of America and of this world.”
Last fall, I observed Moon at a sunrise service at Belvedere, the church’s magnificent $800,000 estate in Tarrytown, NY. By 6 a.m., Moon was talking to about 500 young members who had come up by church buses from New York City. Shivering in the predawn chill, they listened, seemingly captivated. When Moon laughed, they smiled. When he yelled, they stared back in awed silence. When he finished, an associate led the audience in a 15 minute prayer in which he asked repeatedly if they were willing to sacrifice themselves for the church. To each question, they responded in unison, “Yes, Father.” I thought they meant God.
After the service, Moon marched up to the top of the hill overlooking the Hudson, circled by a phalanx of husky bodyguards and followed by the members. There he stood on what members call “the Holy Rock.” With the rising sun just shining on his head – a setting and timing obviously choreographed with considerable care – everyone sang a church hymn called “Shining Fatherland.” Moon then gave a 10 minute prayer in Korean, during which I caught the phrase “Yankee Stadium” several times.
Later, as Moon talked with church officials inside the mansion, I noticed a Korean identified as Colonel Han – “He used to be with the embassy in Washington” – giving orders with military crispness. Another fellow, in a blue uniform turned out to be Spiro captain of Moon’s yacht. As Moon prepared to leave, his party moved with the precision of Secret Servicemen escorting the President. Moon’s bodyguards communicated by means of tiny wrist transmitters and earphones, saluting him as he climbed into his black limousine. As he sped away, they jumped into another limousine and followed.
When I returned to the Holy Rock, I found about 20 Moonies kneeling around it, praying aloud, some sobbing with fervor. Some jerked spasmodically, in spiritual transport, crying out, “Father, oh Father, please help us…” By then, I was no longer sure whether they were praying to God or “Father” Moon.
To understand such devotion, one must follow the process by which the Unification Church recruits and trains its members. Wherever the clean-cut, smiling Moonies can find them – on city streets or college campuses – they engage young Americans in discussions of the state of the country or of their souls. Many Americans are anxious to talk. As one church official told me: There are a lot of lonely people walking around.”
The discussions always end with an invitation to a lecture or retreat. Recruits get a daily dose of six to eight hours of mind-numbing theology based on Moon’s “Divine Principle.” By the final lecture, they learn that God has sent Sun Myung Moon to save the world in general, and them in particular.
The rest of the days are filled with group activities: discussions, calisthenics, meals, sports, lots of singing and praying, generally starting at dawn and lasting well past midnight. In the evenings, the Moonies give testimony of how they have found peace, purpose, love and joy in the Family. Never left alone, recruits are encouraged to pour out their hearts to their new friends, who offer continuous attention and comfort. The weekend ends with a hard-sell pitch for commitment to the next stage in the conversion process, a week-long seminar devoted to more of the same. About one in four makes the step.
In the Northeast, the church’s training headquarters is situated in upstate New York, in Barrytown, in a 250-acre former Christian Brothers monastery purchased the compound. The Moonie commune offers a welcome refuge: no drugs, no drinks, no sex, no money, no problems, no choices, and no decisions. From the team leader’s cheerful “Rise and shine” at 5:30 a.m. to the last group songs and prayers at midnight, Moonies rarely have to think for themselves. Full of fervor, they follow orders and perform their assigned chores with gusto.
Those who observe Moonies closely often notice a glassy, spaced out looks which, combined with their everlasting smiles, makes them resemble tripped-out freaks and gives rise to rumors that the church drugs them. Although some of the glassiness is probably due to a lack of sleep, many Moonies really are on a high – but they are tripping out on faith and devotion, not drugs.
Most parents find that hard to believe. They also have trouble understanding the church’s puritan attitudes toward sex, which govern every minute of its member’s lives. During a tour of Barrytown with Michael Warder, a 30 year old Stanford graduate who serves as director of training, I asked why all activities there and at local church centers were so carefully segregated by sex. “That way, everyone feels more comfortable in their study and in their search for the truth,” Warder replied. “As soon as they’re mixed together you find the boys and girls begin thinking about other things. We feel there’s too much permissive sex and promiscuity today.”
Even if they were in favor of sex, the Moonies would scarcely have time for it. They put in grueling dawn to dusk days recruiting and fund raising. They peddle candles, peanuts, and dried flowers. Some work in pairs at street corners or shopping plazas; others go out in teams selling door to door in suburbs. They rarely mention the church or Sun Myung Moon. They are polite, but persistent. When asked what they’re raising money for, they give vague or misleading answers like “Christian youth work” or “drug abuse program.”
Fund raising leaders send their troops off in the morning with songs, prayers and pep talks, encouraging competition among one another and with other teams. Stoked up like Marine recruits for a bayonet drill, the Moonies hustle for the Lord with a fervor no profit motive could inspire. Those who fail to meet a respectable daily quota often spend the evening praying for God’s help the following day. The average Moonie takes in about $50 to $200 a day; the more successful can make up to $500. Every penny is turned in to the team leader who then turns it over to the church.
Many Moonies are ready for such commitment, and need little pressure: “I’ve been looking for something like this for years,” one told me. “It answers all the questions I was asking.” An ex-Moonie who had spent eight months in the movement said: “I’ll tell you what attracted me. I saw people who looked happy at a time when I felt lonely and desperate. I had no idea what to do with my life, and they had a purpose.”
About half of those who complete the week-long seminar join the movement. Some join as “followers,” remaining at their jobs or at school, and working evenings or weekends on church projects. Some contribute part of their salaries. Those who join as full-time members either move into a local center, or stay on at Barrytown for increasingly intense seminars lasting from three weeks to four months.
During their first few months in the movement, new members often get phone calls or letters from distraught parents and friends, urging them to drop out or at least to come home and talk it all over. One who refused told his parents, “At least I believe in something.” Those who waver are often told their parents or others who oppose the church are acting on behalf of Satan. An evening of intense prayer and guidance generally brings such wayward sheep back to the fold. A few do drop out, but only after strenuous objections from their group leaders.
Once they move in, new members often give what possessions they have to the church. They no longer need money anyway. The church takes care of all their daily needs, from toothpaste to trousers. Directors of the large centers sometimes buy up cheap lots of nearly identical clothing for their resident members, thereby increasing the degree to which Moonies tend to look as though they were cloned rather than recruited.
Except for the Spartan food, clothing and shelter provided for its members, the church invests most of its funds in real estate. It owns property in many states, including more than $15 million worth in New York alone. Earlier this month, Unification agreed to pay more than $5 million for the 42-story 2,000 room New Yorker to be used for its world headquarters. As an investor in real estate, the church has a significant advantage over commercial competitors; its religious status exempts it from property taxes; and most of the repairs, renovations and maintenance on the buildings are performed (critics call it “slave labor”) by willing Moonies.
The New York City Tax Commission is questioning the Unification Church ’s right to its tax exemption, and other challenges are being made to its legitimacy as a religious movement. The New York State Board of Regents has held up recognition of the church’s new seminary at Barrytown. The New York City Council of Churches has rejected Unification’s request for membership, in part because of Moon’s role as the new Messiah, and his claim that Christ failed in his mission. “They call themselves a church,” says one council leader, “but they do not act like one, particularly in the matter of individual freedom and he alleged incarceration of young people.”
Under the leadership of Rabbi Maurice Davis of White Plains, the national organization that has been formed of parents who have lost their children tries to locate them through the network of ex-members. If the parents wish, the organization puts them in touch with professional deprogrammers like Ted Patrick, who may try to rescue the children for fees that can run several thousand dollars. The deprogramming can be more brutal than any brainwashing the church may practice. Rabbi Davis warns parents that such attempts may be illegal and dangerous. “And if it doesn’t work,” he tells them, “you may lose your child.” But for those like Wendy Helander’s parents, who feel they’ve already lost their children, the warning seems meaningless.
Rabbi Davis and others who have studied the movement say that what happens to the young Moonies follows the classic pattern of brainwashing: They are isolated from past and outside contacts; worn down physically, mentally and emotionally; surrounded with new instant comrades and a new authority figure; and finally programmed with new beliefs and pressured into total commitment. “I am your brain,” Moon has told them. “What I wish must be your wish.”
But while total conversion to the church may require or cause the suspension of one’s critical faculties, and while one may well question the independence of a true converts mind, no one has proven the church holds its members against their will.
Perhaps the Unification Church has been criticized unfairly for doing much of what established religions have been doing for years. For example, suppose I described a church that has amassed great wealth and property in this country through charitable donations and profitable investments; a church whose leader lives in splendor while young novitiates live in ascetic communes, cut off from family and friends, leading lives of absolute devotion to the church and absolute obedience to its authority. Would this description not fit the Catholic Church as well as that of Sun Myung Moon?
Unification’s leaders distinguish their movement from other cults by stressing their concern about crime, drugs, alcohol and other social ills. But none of the recruits I saw looked like ex-junkies, and most come from middle class homes rather than crime-ridden ghettos. For all its talk about social problems, the church runs no programs aimed at solving them, and devotes almost no effort to helping nonmembers. Most of its resources are directed inward, producing more money and more members, who in turn will recruit more members and raise more money. When I asked one church official how this would benefit society, he replied, “We can change the world by changing men’s hearts.” When I countered that such a policy would solve society’s problems only if everyone joined the movement, he smiled.
Obviously not everyone is joining the Unification Church. Through a process of self-selection, Moon’s movement seems to attract only those youths already seeking some form of commitment. Many have been drifting from cults to communes for years, sampling the spiritual fare like diners at a smorgasbord. The church may be capitalizing on their loneliness, but it can hardly be blamed for their vulnerability.
While critics describe the movement as authoritarian, the church leaders prefer to call their approach “loving and parental.” I think both descriptions may be accurate. To thousands of young Americans threatened or frustrated by the prospect of adulthood, Moon’s family offers the security of perennial childhood. To lonely young people drifting through cold, impersonal cities and schools, it offers instant friendship and communion, a sense of belonging. To those troubled by drugs, sex or materialism, the church offers a drugless, sexless world of ascetic Puritanism.
To those hungering for truth and meaning in a complex world, it offers purpose and direction. In exchange for their labor and devotion, Moon gives them a life of love, joy and inner peace, with no hassles, no doubts, and no decisions. Critics call that exploitation, but the Moonies consider it a bargain.
The Moon Organization Academic Network (1991)
Covert Action Information Bulletin Number 38 – Fall 1991
Rev. Moon Goes to College
by Daniel Junas
Daniel Junas is a researcher living In Seattle, Washington.
▲ “The policy-makers in the background are the professors. Even though they represent the cultural ﬁeld, more than anything we need scholars in the scientific fields, in the political, cultural, and economic fields.”1 Rev. Moon
On Labor Day weekend in 1984, 240 academics from 46 countries gathered in Washington D.C. under the auspices of the International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences (ICUS), a front organization of the Rev. Sun Myung Moon’s Uniﬁcation Church. The Washington Post portrayed this remarkable scholarly conference as part of an expensive effort by Moon to cleanse his tainted image.2 Ever since Moon achieved notoriety in the 1970s, the media have tended to portray him as a kooky cult leader whose aspirations for political power are not to be taken seriously.
By interpreting the conference and the Moon Organization’s3 efforts to court academia simply as a PR ploy, the Post (which, is the journalistic rival of the Moon-funded Washington Times) underestimated the sophistication of Moon’s strategy. Since its inception, Moon has provided an important link between academia, intelligence agencies, and the political Right. Gaining legitimacy and influence within the academic establishment and having access to its resources have long been central to Moon’s mission.
In 1954, when the Rev. Moon founded the Holy Spirit Association for the Uniﬁcation of World Christianity in Seoul, he immediately began proselytizing on college campuses.4 His first political mission in Japan was in 1960 during the massive student-led protests objecting to the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty. From that point, with the backing of certain elements of the Japanese Right, Moon worked to build a right-wing student movement. For the next decade and a half, the Moon Organization used this network to respond to similar threats to U.S. foreign policy objectives emanating from student-led protests in South Korea and the United States.
Moon’s academic operations reflect both his extensive Japanese backing and his alliance with the US. foreign policy establishment, including a longstanding and complex relationship with the CIA and its South Korean offspring, the KCIA. The International Cultural Foundation (ICF), the umbrella for Moon’s various academic fronts, was founded in Japan in 1968. The ICF’s political arm, the Professors World Peace Academy (PWPA) was founded five years later, and one of its first projects was a study of Japanese national goals. But PWPA also provided Moon, in collaboration with ex-CIA official Ray Cline, with a vehicle to extend Moon operations into Africa, and to exhort African academics to support the U.S. intelligence community.
The Moon Organization must be seen, therefore, not as an independent entity, but as an extension of the national security state and as a mechanism for linking its proponents around the world. Moon’s academic connections are inextricably linked to this agenda, and despite the religions trappings, Moon on campus is the political and moral equivalent of the CIA on campus.
In 1955, one year after its founding in South Korea, Moon’s church was rocked by a sex scandal, prompting Moon to seek powerful allies.5 Moon began recruiting South Korean military officers, who later provided important links between the Moon Organization and the Korean Central Intelligence Agency.
Meanwhile, in 1958, Moon’s first missionary travelled to Japan, where he later made contact with Ryoichi Sasakawa, a powerful “godfather” of the Japanese Right.6 Before World War II, Sasakawa had been a prominent fascist organizer; after the war, he was imprisoned by the U.S. Occupation authorities as a suspected Class A war criminal. While in Sugamo Prison, he struck an alliance with two other war crimes suspects—his old comrade-in-arms Yoshio Kodama, and Nobutsuke Kishi, who served in Prime Minister Tojo’s wartime cabinet.
In December 1948, this trio was released without trial, leading many to believe that a deal had been struck with the U.S. Occupation authorities.7 Indeed, soon after his release, Kodama went to work for U.S. intelligence and in 1958 he was placed on the CIA’s payroll.8
When Kishi was elected Prime Minister in 1957, his top priority was negotiating a revised Security Treaty with the U.S. Approved by the Japanese Diet under duress in 1951 at the end of the Occupation, this agreement seriously undermined Japanese sovereignty. Kishi, a close ally of the U.S., sought to remove only the most blatantly objectionable provisions, such as permitting the U.S. to intervene in domestic disturbances at the invitation of the Japanese government. He anticipated stiff resistance to the agreement, however, from the communist-dominated Japanese student movement, which, along with a majority of the Japanese people, objected to the suspected presence of nuclear weapons at U.S. bases in Japan, and to the rearmament of Japan then taking place under the political cover of the treaty. In preparation, Kishi called on his ally Kodama to assemble a repressive force consisting of rightists and yakuza, the Japanese organized crime syndicates.
In 1960, when Kishi rammed the treaty through the Diet, enormous street demonstrations erupted. Despite Kishi’s preparations, President Eisenhower was forced to cancel a visit to Tokyo commemorating the passage of the treaty and Kishi stepped down as Prime Minister.10 The treaty, however, remained and sealed an economic as well as military alliance.
Building the Student Right
The treaty struggle, which marked a watershed in the U.S.-Japan relationship, represents the true founding moment of the Moon Organization as a political entity. Moon’s first missionary had founded the Japanese Unification Church—known as Genri Undo—on the eve of the treaty struggle, and by some accounts, Moon himself served as a go-between competing right-wing factions during preparations for the demonstrations.11 In 1960, Moon also adopted anti-communism,12 as he adjusted his ideology to suit the political needs of his new Japanese allies.
In the wake of the treaty struggle, Kishi and Sasakawa were working together to organize numerous student organizations.13 These efforts followed the outlines of a comprehensive strategy devised by right-wing academic Juitsu Kitaoka to build a right-wing student movement and rid Japanese campuses of Marxist influences.14 Genri Undo became an essential part of this strategy. A decisive moment came in late 1962, when Osami Kuboki, a leader in Kishi/Sasakawa student fronts, apparently engineered the conversion of 50 leaders of a Buddhist sect to Genri Undo.15
1. “Investigation of Korean-American Relations, Report of the Subcommittee on International Organizations of the Committee on International Relations” (hereafter IKAR), U.S. House of Representatives, October 31, 1978; Appendix, Vol. II, p.1049.
2. Isikoff, Michael, Washington Post, “Moon Spends Millions to Boost image,” September 17, 1984, p. A1.
3. “Although there is no entity named the ‘Moon Organization,’” according to the investigation by IKAR, “the numerous churches, businesses, committees, foundations, and other groups associated with Sun Myung Moon, emerged as parts of what is essentially one worldwide organization under the centralized organization and control of Moon… The subcommittee came to view them as one unit and refers to them in the aggregate as the Moon Organization.” IKAR. op. cit., p. 313.
4. IKAR Appendix, Volume II; op. cit., p. 1293.
5. op. cit., IKAR, Appendix, p. 1170.
6. John Roberts, “Happiness Ginseng from Earth-Conquering Moonies,” Far Eastern Economic Review, June 23, 1978, pp. 57-60.
7. This pattern was a familiar one in the wake of World War II. Placing its highest priority on eliminating anti-fascist resistance movements—often dominated by left and communist elements—U.S. postwar planners threw their support behind the same fascist leaders they had so recently fought. In Italy, Germany and France, as well as in Japan, war criminals, fascists, nazis, and collaborators were recruited to battle the “international communist menace” and support U.S. interests.
8. The single best source on the postwar careers of Sasakawa, Kodama, and Kishi is David E. Kaplan and Alec Dobro, Yakuza (New York: Macmillan, 1986), pp. 63-69 and 78-83.
9. Jon Halliday, A Political History of Japanese Capitalism (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1975), pp. 201-2. See also: George R. Packard, III, Protest in Tokyo (Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1966).
10. Kaplan and Dubro, op. cit., pp. 83-7.
11. Roberts op. cit.
12. IKAR Appendix, Volume II; op. cit., p. 1030.
13. Hayahi Masayuki, “OISCA,” AMPO, Vol. 19, No.1, p. 2, et seq.
14. Ivan I. Morris, Nationalism and the Right Wing in Japan: A Study of Post-War Trends (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1960), pp. 285-88
15. Jeffrey M. Bale, “‘Privatizing’ Covert Action: The Case of the Uniﬁcation Church,” Lobster (Hull, UK), #21.
Also in 1962 Moon’s primary student front, the Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles (CARP), was founded.16 Kitaoka subsequently became a key official in Moon’s Japanese operations, while Kishi became a front man and Sasakawa a behind-the-scenes patron.17 Despite Moon’s Korean origins and his links to the South Korean military and intelligence, he essentially became a tool of his Japanese backers.18
Since these figures were closely allied with the United States, it seems likely—despite lack of hard evidence—that the CIA had a hand in developing the Unification Church. Kodama, who was also active in right-wing student politics, was both a CIA asset and an ally of Kishi and Sasakawa. Dampening the influence of the Japanese Left was part of the CIA’s mission in Japan at that time. Then Japan-based CIA officer Donald Gregg was part of these efforts.19
Further evidence that Moon was linked to the CIA can be found in South Korea. In 1961, a CIA-backed coup brought to power that nation’s first pro-Japanese government since the end of World War II.20 The architect of the coup, Kim Jong-Pil, established the CIA-founded21 Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA) shortly thereafter. Kim also turned to the Japanese as a source of political funds. Kodama provided a back channel and Kishi masterminded the negotiations, which aimed to normalize relations between former enemies Korea and Japan.22 At the same time, Kim was also establishing close ties with the Uniﬁcation Church.23
When, at the urging of the U.S., Japan and South Korea finally normalized relations in 1965, student-led protests erupted in South Korea. The following year the South Korean chapter of CARP was founded.24
The new relationship between South Korea and Japan was also closely linked to the then-escalating Vietnam War. President Johnson had persuaded South Korea to provide troops to the war effort, while Japan began assuming part of the U.S.’s foreign aid burden for South Korea, leading to the creation of a strategic U.S.-Japan-South Korea triangle.25
This arrangement dovetailed with Kishi’s agenda. As eminence grise of Japan’s ruling Liberal Democratic Party, he controlled Japan’s foreign aid programs, and he used his leverage to make South Korea his economic “territory.”26 At the same time, the Vietnam War proved extremely lucrative to Kishi’s corporate allies, who helped supply the war effort.27
Once again, however, this strategy was threatened by a student-led protest movement, this time in the US. And once again, the Moon Organization sought to build a right-wing student movement as a counterweight to the Left.
Counteracting the Student Left
Although Moon had begun sending his missionaries to the U.S. and a smattering of other locales in 1959, their influence and numbers were very limited. In 1965, however, he prepared for expansion by touring the world and dedicating holy grounds throughout the U.S., Europe, the Middle East and Asia. At the same time, Moon was undertaking an alliance with the nascent World Anti-Communist League—an international conglomeration of hardline conservatives, fascists and anti-semites—enabling him to establish links with rightists in the U.S. and around the world.28 WACL grew out of the Asian People’s Anti-Communist League, which had been founded by Taiwan and South Korea in 1954. Two key behind-the-scenes players in WACL were Moon’s patron Sasakawa, and Ray Cline, who was CIA chief of station in Taiwan from 1958 to 1962 when plans were laid for WACL, and who was later associated with the Moon Organization as well.
16. Op. cit., IKAR, Appendix, Vol. II, p. 1297.
17. Roberts, op. cit.
18. For a more detailed investigation see: Daniel Junas, “Rising Moon: The Unification Church’s Japan Connection” (Institute for Global Security Studies, Seattle, 1989).
19. Gregg served in Japan from 1953-63. Steve McGuire, CounterSpy, December 1976, p. 34. He was Vice President George Bush’s national security adviser and an important player in the Iran-contra affair. Now U.S. ambassador to South Korea, he is under investigation by Special Prosecutor Lawrence Walsh for his alleged role in the 1980 “October Surprise.”
20. From before World War I to 1945, Japan had occupied Korea and imposed brutal military dictatorship during which even speaking the Korean language was a capital crime. Enmity of Koreans for Japan ran deep, as did Japanese prejudice against Koreans. U.S. political, economic, and military domination of the region, as well as the convergence of interests among elites, was even stronger than the animosity.
21. “It was the U.S. CIA which helped to set up the KCIA, thereby providing to the diffuse authoritarianism of the Rhee regime (1948-1960) an organizational weapon which has kept Park in power through 18 years of Korean dissent and upheaval.” (Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, June 1977, Vol. 9, Number II, p. 2.)
22. Joungwon Kim, Divided Korea: Politics of Development, 1945-1972 (Cambridge: Harvard Press, 1975), p. 241; Takano Hajime, “Kishi: Scavenger in the Shadows, Kingpin of the Japanese Right,” AMPO. Vol. 1, p. 18.
23. IKAR, op. cit., pp. 354-5.
24. IKAR, op. cit., Appendix, Vol. II, p. 1297.
25. IKAR, op. cit., p. 26.
26. Hajime, op. cit., p. 17.
27. Jon Halliday and Gavan McCormack, Japanese Imperialism Today(New York: Monthly Review Press, 1973), pp. 107-8, and Hajime, op. cit.
28. On Sasakawa and WACL, see: Roberts, op. cit.; also Roberts, “Ryoichi Sasakawa: Nippon’s right-wing muscleman,” Insight, April 1978, p. 8, et seq. On Cline and WACL, see: Jon Lee Anderson and Scott Anderson, Inside the League (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1986), p. 55.
The Moon Organization‘s involvement with WACL was closely linked to its student and academic operations. Kitaoka was a member of the Japanese delegation at WACL’s founding conference in Taiwan.29 Also in 1967, a secret meeting was held to plan the Japanese chapter of WACL, the International Federation for Victory Over Communism (IFVOC). The participants included Kodama, Sasakawa, Moon and Kuboki, who became a key official of the IFVOC and the International Cultural Foundation (ICF) (the umbrella for Moon’s various academic fronts), which were both founded in Japan in 1968.30
A similar leadership pattern prevailed in the U.S., where the IFVOC was known as the Freedom Leadership Foundation (FLF). When the U.S. WACL chapter, the American Council for World Freedom (ACWF), was founded in 1970, FLF leader Neil Salonen held a seat on the board, and when ICF was incorporated in New York in 1973, Salonen became its president.31
The FLF had been formed in August 1969, the month after President Nixon announced his Nixon Doctrine.32 Student-led protests—along with the financial cost of the war—had forced Nixon to retrench the United States’s commitment to Asia. According to his new policy, Asians would have to fight their own wars, although the U.S. would continue to provide material support. FLF’s response was to lobby for the hawk position on Vietnam, and to work to undermine the student anti-war movement on college campuses.
“Father [Moon] said that college campuses are a major battlefield, and if we win there we will definitely win America.”
Such efforts were welcomed by the Nixon White House, which by 1970 was providing money to Moon operatives from a secret slush fund to support student activities.33 FLF continued building a right-wing student movement throughout the early 1970s, when Moon was also encouraging his followers to make friends in the FBI and CIA.34
In the 1970s Moon’s designs were frustrated by the storm of negative publicity that battered his cult. But when the Reagan administration came to power, both WACL and the Moon Organization became partners in the aggressive foreign and military policy known as the Reagan Doctrine, which sought to roll back the Soviet empire, and support such anti-communist “freedom fighters” as the Nicaraguan contras35 and UNITA in Angola.
Meanwhile, the U.S. branch of CARP, which Moon had founded in 1973, moved swiftly to counteract the student Left. In the early 1980s, CARP conducted a smear campaign against the Committee in Solidarity with the People of El Salvador, accusing it of “Marxist ties.”36 More importantly, CARP aided the FBI’s illegal investigation of CISPES by spying on the solidarity organization and providing information on CISPES’ campus activities to the Bureau.37 In 1980, Moon also created his transnational political front, CAUSA.
Creating the New World Culture
Counteracting the student left is only one side of Moon’s academic intrigue. The other is gaining access to professors and their research, winning them over to Moon’s political agenda, and using them to influence policy. The patina of legitimacy provided by these academic connections also provides a useful by-product to the Moon Organization.
One of the earliest and most important ICF fronts was the International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences (ICUS), which has sponsored lavish, all-expense-paid academic conferences annually since 1972.38 These conferences, however, are not simply benign gatherings devoted to interdisciplinary discussions. Nor are the lavish grants and awards Moon dispenses to favored academics, or the opportunity to be published by his Paragon House press, merely impartial efforts to advance knowledge and promote international cooperation.39 Moon is using these academics in pursuit of his ultimate goal: the creation of a global, transnational, theocratic state to be controlled by Moon and his devotees.
29. “Proceedings: The First Conference of the World Anti-Communist League,” September 25-29, 1967, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China, p. 4.
30. Anderson and Anderson, op. cit., p. 69; IKAR op. cit., p. 321.
31. Anderson and Anderson,op. cit., p. 85; IKAR, ibid.
32. IKAR op. cit., Appendix, Vol. II, p. 1296.
33. Allen Tate Wood, Moonstruck (New York: William Morrow, 1979), p. 81 et seq.
34. Allen Tate Wood, “Ex-Members Against Moon,” Press Conference, Washington, D.C., November 15, 1979, p. 3.
35. CAUSA, created in 1980, was Moon’s main vehicle for political and material support for the contras. (See CAIB, Number 22, pp. 31-33)
36. Leaflet, undated, CARP, Seattle, Washington.
37. Washington Post, Associated Press, “Moon Group Told FBI About Activists,” April 23, 1988.
38. Russ Bellant, “Rev. Moon’s Search for Scholars,” Texas Observer, January 24, 1986, pp. 11-12.
39. Karl Pribram, a professor of neuroscience at Stanford University, who is on the board of both Paragon House and PWPA received a $50,000 grant to study “the relationship between modern warfare and the establishment of social dominance hierarchies.” Eugene Wigner, who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in physics, was given an ICF Founder’s (i.e. Rev. Moon’s) Award of $200,000.
In a 1973 speech to his closest followers,40 Moon laid out the special role he envisioned for academics. ICUS, he said, was to develop a philosophy, based on his own religious teachings, known as “Unification Thought,” which would “win over any ideology or ism in the world.”41 Speaking to the 14th annual ICUS conference in 1985 in Houston, Moon himself asked the attending scientists and philosophers to “create the new world culture which must be established at any cost.”42 The professors “were charged… with finding a new basis to ‘guide’ cultural transformation, [as well as developing] ways for ICUS to increase its campus influence.”43 When an ICUS official was asked how the Houston conference’s work would be taken advantage of, he said “we have our spies in each of the committees.”44 The Moon Organization apparently uses ICUS to cast a wide net, and then determines which academics it wishes to court.
At a July 1990 symposium in Tokyo, for instance, lectures on Unification Thought were presented to six chairmen and former chairmen of ICUS committees, as well as to other scholars who attended previous symposia.45
While ICUS concerns itself with scientific, philosophical and cultural issues, the Professors World Peace Academy is the division of ICF most directly connected to the Moon Organization’s political objectives. As Moon made clear to his own followers, he sought to use professors “to direct the world policies toward the same goals.”46
Like the IFVOC and CARP, PWPA was grounded in the U.S.-Japan-South Korea triangle. Initiated in Seoul, one of its first ventures was its “National Goals project for the study of Japan’s strategy in the 1980s.”47 At the same time, PWPA was also making plans for the United States. In May 1974 an internal Moon Organization publication reported:
Father [Moon] wants to mobilize 20 or 30 of the Korean professors to influence American academia, both professors and students. Because of this, Father stressed the importance of building up CARP … to serve as the foundation for their work when they arrive. Father said that college campuses are a major battlefield, and if we win there we will definitely win America.48
The U.S. Division of PWPA was established in 1979 and was headed by Morton Kaplan, a professor of International Relations and director of the conservative Center for Strategic and Foreign Policy Studies at the University of Chicago. Kaplan, who has called Moon the greatest religious figure of all time,49 also chaired ICUS’s Change and Development Committee, and four ICUS meetings, from 1980 to 1983.50 Kaplan is also associated with Moon’s D.C.-based think tank, the Washington Institute for Values in Public Policy.51
One of PWPA’s projects was forging a relationship with the government of South Africa, which was the topic of PWPA’s first U.S. conference in May 1979 held in New York. Then in June 1981 in Athens, Greece, Morton Kaplan moderated a small, private conference convened by PWPA for South African government officials and representatives of all South African racial groups –excluding, of course, the then-outlawed African National Congress. According to a U.S. State Department cable, South Africans attending the session included the Chief Constitutional Planner in the office of the Prime Minister, other government representatives, officials of Chief Gatsha Buthelezi’s Inkatha, and various social and political leaders. A public controversy erupted in Athens when the Unification Church’s sponsorship of the conference was revealed. One of the participants said afterward that, “it was extremely unfortunate that the publicity surrounding the Moonie connection had cast a shadow on what had been extremely useful and productive conversations on South Africa’s future constitutional arrangements.”52
At the same time PWPA was establishing a secret relationship with South Africa, it was also cultivating African academics. In November 1981 the Moon Organization flew academics from 20 African nations, along with several African academics living in the U.S., to an ICUS conference in South Korea. During this same period, PWPA also founded its African branch. Since PWPA sought to attract a large African following, it downplayed its ties to South Africa.53 PWPA apparently felt no compunction, however, about revealing its support for U.S. foreign policy. Addressing the U.S. PWPA gathering in 1981, former CIA official Ray Cline said, “I’m annoyed at you, academics—you have to give more support to the intelligence community.” 54
When some of the Africans present said it would taint their credibility in Africa to be associated with the CIA, Cline replied that “it’s only people who are not allied with the U.S. who talk like that.”55
Cline currently serves on the Executive Advisory Board of The World & I, a telephone-book sized glossy magazine published by Moon’s News World Communications. The magazine’s Editor and Publisher is Morton Kaplan, and its Advisory Boards are composed of over 100 scholars from nearly as many nations, including national representatives of Professors World Peace Academy chapters, U.S. members include Richard Rubenstein (Florida State University), Nicholas Kittrie (American University), S. Fred Singer (University of Virginia), Lee Congdon (James Madison University), and Baroness Garnett Stackelberg (unaffiliated).
Penetrating the Communist World
One of the apparent purposes of PWPA is to provide the leaders of the Moon Organization with information and analysis about international political developments. Thus while the Moon Organization was an active partner in the Reagan Doctrine, seeking to roll back the Soviet empire, PWPA was preparing for the ultimate success of this policy. In August 1985, just five months after Gorbachev had taken power, PWPA held a conference in Geneva, Switzerland on “The Fall of the Soviet Empire: Prospects for Transition to a Post-Soviet World.”57
When change swept through Eastern Europe in 1989, the Moon Organization moved with alacrity. Rev. Chung-Hwan Kwak, a top Moon aide and an ICF official, travelled through Eastern Europe in October 1989 to make contacts among professors and religious leaders.58 He also organized an Introductory Seminar on the Unification Movement, which was held in December 1989 in Poland and attracted 49 scholars and religious leaders from Poland, the U.S.S.R., Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Hungary, and East Germany.59
PWPA soon established a foothold in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. PWPA chapters were officially registered in Poland, Czechoslovakia and the U.S.S.R.; a PWPA office was opened in Hungary; and PWPA meetings were held in all those countries and in Bulgaria and Yugoslavia.60 In September 1990, PWPA held an international meeting in Poland on “The Historical Dimension of Transformation in Eastern Europe.”61 At the same time, the Unification Church began bringing Soviet students to the U.S. under the auspices of both its International Leadership Conference and CARP.62
Given Moon’s vigorous support for the Reagan Doctrine, it appears likely that these operations reflect a second stage in the implementation of that Doctrine. Now that political, social, cultural, and economic changes are sweeping through the formerly communist bloc nations, the Moon Organization is clearly using its academic fronts to influence the direction of those changes, just as it did previously in Japan, South Korea, the United States, Africa and elsewhere. And given the Moon Organization’s longstanding alliance with the CIA, it also appears likely that these operations are being undertaken in conjunction with the Agency. Moon’s reach, stretched with the help of his allies in the national security state, is becoming global.
40. IKAR, op. cit., p. 387.
41. IKAR, op. cit., Appendix, Vol. II, p. 1047.
42. Bellant, op. cit., p. 11.
44. Op. cit., p. 12.
45. Paul J. Perry, “ICUS Professors Discuss Unification Thought,” Unification News, September 1990, p. 17.
46. IKAR, op. cit., Appendix, Vol. II, p. 1049.
47. International Cultural Foundation brochure, undated, c. 1975. op. cit., Roberts, p. 59.
48. IKAR, op. cit., Appendix, Vol. II, p. 1291.
49. Bellant, op. cit., p. 11. Salonen became PWPA-USA head this summer.
50. Department of State Telegram, R 1013422, August 1980, From Secretary of State to: American Consulate, Johannesburg, Subject: Professors World Peace Academy.
51. Washington Institute for Values in Public Policy brochure, undated, c. 1983-84.
52. Department of State Telegram, R151510Z, June 1981, from: American Embassy, Pretoria, to Secretary of State, Washington, D.C., Subject: South Africa, Unification Church Connection Alleged to Athens Conference on South African Politics.
53. “Moonies over Africa,” Africa Now, January 1983, p. 64, et seq.
56. Masthead, The World & I, April 1991, p. 3.
57. Orbis, Spring 1989, pp. 305-6; Book Review of The Soviet Union and the Challenge of the Future, Alexander Stromas and Morton A. Kaplan (no author listed for review).
58. Gordon L. Anderson, “Teaching Unificationism in Poland,” Unification News, January 1990, p. 5.
60. Gordon L. Anderson, “Bringing Unificationism to Eastern Europe, Unification News, April 1990; p. 14; Gordon L. Anderson, “PWPA Opens a Chapter in Moscow,” Unification News, May 1990, p. 6s.
61. Gordon L. Anderson, “Building Unity in Eastern Europe,” Unification News, February 1991, p. 12.
62. Jack Corley, “Soviet Student International Leadership Conference,” Unification News, October 1990, p. 12; Felicity Barringer,“New Flock for Moon Church: The Changing Soviet Student,” New York Times, Nov. 14, 1990 p. 1.
“The CARP movement is attracting thousands of students from all over the country,” crowed the July 1991 Unification News. “The CARP staff members are working day and night just to keep up with the demand for lectures and information. The same is true of the Unification Church leaders and the PWPA office.” (pp. 23, 35.)
Moon Rising: The History and Politics of the Unification Church
by Daniel Junas