At least 70 Ewha Womans University students were involved in a sex scandal with Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church (FFWPU). Here are newspaper reports from the time. Additional photos and notes from the UC president’s diary, and other UC members, are included. There is also information about two children born during 1955. Hee-jin Moon has been acknowledged by Moon as his son. Dong-sook has been recognized as a ‘True Child’ and was known by many early members in Korea to be Moon’s daughter.
Updated November 17, 2018
▲ Unification Church members 劉景圭 유경규 Yoo Kyoung-kyu and 黄煥菜 황환채 Hwang Hwan-chae (later Hwang was one of the 36 couples) witness at Ewha Womans University in 1955. They had both joined as students at the nearby Yonsei University in Seoul. The president of the UC at the time, 劉孝元 Eu Hyo-won, refers to them in his diary (below). The main building of the Ewha campus is in the background. Ewha was supported by the US Methodist Church.
▲ Choi Seon-gil was born on March 21, 1925. She was married to Sun Myung Moon from May 4, 1944 to January 8, 1957. She bore him one son, Sung-jin Moon, on April 2, 1946 in Seoul. The midwife was a member of Kim Baek-moon’s church which Moon was attending at the time. Kim Baek-moon was another Korean pikareum sex ritual messiah. Choi Seon-gil was a Presbyterian and did not approve of Kim or like her husband going to Kim’s church and giving their family money to him. She despised Moon’s sexual practises. She had to endure Moon’s abandonment of her when their son was a few months old – Moon went to Pyongyang in June 1946 with no warning; his adultery; his 1948 jailing for bigamy; his illegitimate children born during their marriage; the Ewha scandal and his messianic ideas. Sung-jin was taken from her by Moon, and then put into the care of various members. She died on November 16, 2008.
How the Ewha Womans University sex scandal started.
Eu Hyo-won was living in Busan towards the end of 1953 when he was shown the 1952 Wolli Wonbon (Divine Principle) notes of Sun Myung Moon which were in two notebooks. He became very interested and hand copied the notebooks. Moon traveled to Busan on December 24, 1953 to meet him and to hold a three day religious meeting and recruitment campaign in Yeongdo, Busan. It continued for 25 days (see interview below). That is where Moon met Mr Eu for the first time – he was inspired and joined. Mr Eu was six years older than Moon, who, significantly, put him in the archangel position so he had to be completely obedient to Moon. Eu Hyo-won had had a girlfriend in Seoul, Kim Joo-hwa.
In April 1954 Eu Hyo-won traveled to Seoul and witnessed to his relative, Yang Yun-yeong, who was a music professor at Ewha Womans University. She immediately joined and started witnessing to many people, including professors and students at both Yonsei and Ewha Universities. Since the church at the time was small and shabby, she often arranged for guests to be taught by Eu Hyo-won at her home which was situated between the two universities. Kim Myung-hee, another university student, also stayed there when she was pregnant with Moon’s child, Hee-jin. (Photo and further details below) Moon sent her to Tokyo to give birth to save himself from charges of adultery since he was still married to his first wife, Seon-gil Choi. And Dong-sook had been born that spring. A second baby with a resemblance to Moon would have given further credence to the rumors of his womb-cleansing sex rituals.
Han Chong-hwa was the second Ewha faculty member to join, in October 1954. She taught English and was the dean of the dormitories – they represented another world on the Ewha campus.
Mrs. Kim Jeong-ok: “I remember it because I was a student at this university at the time. There was a female professor of English, Han Chong-hwa, new that year, who was teaching the principles of the Unification Church in the classroom as well as in the women’s dormitories. In the women’s dorm they were lighting candles and dancing. It was very contagious and affected other professors and many female students, and it became a big incident.”
Suh Myung-jin, a student: “She was the wife of a member of the parliament, who was abducted to the North. She had a great faith. As her husband was taken to the North, she never stopped making tearful prayers. As the dormitory dean she had to wake up earlier than the students. She prayed tearfully for the people. When the students came for the early morning prayer at 5 am, she prayed with them in tears and through this moved and changed us.”
Mrs. Kim Jeong-ok: “Chong-hwa Han’s husband had been abducted in North Korea, and two of her children were both plagued by serious illnesses. She had met Sun Myung Moon in Busan. He had told her that if she offered everything to the Unification Church, her husband would return and also her children’s illnesses would be healed. I heard that subsequently she became a fanatical member. I heard her lecturing about the Unification Church in the dormitory and in the classroom, so I scolded her. I told her that this Methodist school did not permit her to lecture about the Unification Church in the classrooms and dormitories. I also said that Christianity was not taught in a temple. She retorted, “One day those of you who do not believe in the Unification Church will go to hell”. The next day she submitted her letter of resignation.
“About ten years later Chong-hwa Han came to visit my house. She was shabbily dressed. She told me she had left the Unification Church. She was crying as she explained, “I dedicated my house and land, and all my deposits to the Unification Church. Still I am without my husband and my children did not recover from their illnesses.” A few years later she died.”
Some girls accepted her “teaching” and they joined the Unification Church. One has to wonder what fate was waiting for them.
Following is Mrs Kang Chung-won’s testimony given in 1980. She was one of the 36 couples:
“My name is Mrs. Kang [Jungwon] and my husband is Rev. Lee [Jae-suk] who is President of Super Denomination in Korea. I joined the Unification Church in November 1954 in Seoul. When I went to sleep on September 13, 1954, I heard a loud voice [in a dream] and I saw a bright light. The voice said “These are the last days. It is the age of the Father.” …
In October a professor of English joined our church. [This must be Han Choong-hua.] At the end of her lectures, she began to tell her students a little about Divine Principle. What the professor told us was exactly what I had been wanting to hear. [Professor Han] told me that she would introduce me to someone who could solve all my problems. … When I first came to the Unification Church, President Eu [Hyo-won] taught me the Divine Principle. During the lecture, Father took a piece of paper and began drawing diagrams and explaining the Principle to me directly.
In the winter of 1955 the university was on vacation but many students continued to come to listen to lectures. After classes began again in February, 50 to 60 students would come to our church each day.
After Sunday services Father would climb the hill behind the church with many university students. There he would talk to us about the world of the future, the problem of Communist China, the problems in South-East Asia and America, the energy crisis, the food crisis, the breaking out of diseases of unknown origin and other things. He would work out any problem that was troubling us young people. Because of this, it was inevitable that this truth become very popular among university students.
Because we followed Father so fervently people at school and in society began to spread many lies and to oppose us. They spread rumours such as that we had electrical systems and that we danced in the nude. These were completely incredible to any intelligent person. The rumours about dancing in the nude came from people confusing us with another spiritual group which had danced like this thinking that their original sin had been forgiven and that they no longer had to feel shameful about their bodies.
[After 14 of us were expelled from Ewha] we went to see Dr. Helen Kim, the Dean of Ewha Womans University, but she refused to talk with us saying that we had curtains over our eyes. She said we had gone crazy.
After that incident [the arrest of Father on July 4th] we were always followed by the police, we were ridiculed by society and we had been expelled from school.”
A US FBI report on Sun Myung Moon contained a letter from the Church of the Nazarene in Seoul. It gives an interesting summary of the official and the unofficial theology of the Unification Church. Here is the unofficial part of it:
“The letter additionally states that the group also secretly observes such other beliefs and practices as the following:
1) Founder Moon is the Second Advent Jesus.
2) A believer receives a spiritual body by participating in a ceremony known as blood cleansing [pikareum = blood exchange, pi = blood] which is for women to have sexual intercourse with Moon and for men to have intercourse with such a woman. This idea of blood cleansing comes from the teaching that Eve committed immorality with the Serpent and she passes on to all of us serpent blood.
3) Secretly observed doctrines are Holy covenant and are of more value than the Bible.
4) Members who have experienced blood cleansing can produce sinless generation [children].
5) Founder Moon is sinless.” LINK to the report
Other US diplomatic cables from Seoul reported, “the church interprets the Bible in sexual terms and maintains that religious experience is interrelated with sex. MUN Son-myong (sic), leader of the church, was once arrested because of the sexual practices of the organization.” (Chicago Tribune, Monday, March 27, 1978)
Sa Gil-ja 史吉子 was an Ewha Womans University student who joined the Unification Church in May 1955. (In 1960 she was married to Eu Hyo-won, the UC president.) When numerous students and several professors became UC members, they were given an ultimatum: Leave the Unification Church or leave Ewha University. Sa Gil-ja wrote in a testimony:
“Among the three hundred fifty students in the dormitory, more than a hundred went and heard Divine Principle.
Finally the decisive day came. A teaching assistant sent by the Dean of Students came to the dormitory and said, “I want all of you who are going to the Unification Church to gather immediately!” When we had gathered she handed out a questionnaire with ten questions on it. . . . fourteen of us were called to the office of the dean of students. The dean told us, ‘the Unification Church is heresy, and they dance around in the nude. You musn’t go there.’ We answered, ‘We haven’t even danced fully clothed, much less nude. If we wanted to dance, we would go to a dance hall. Why should we go to church to dance?’ But she said, ‘that’s not true. You don’t know because you’re not in very deeply yet. If you keep going, they will make you take your clothes off and dance.’
… I found out later, however, that there had been a spiritual group in North Korea which really had danced in the nude. … This is the group that Mother’s mother, grandmother Hong, entered.” [‘Mother’ is Han Hak-ja; and her mother’s name was Hong Soon-ae.]
(from ‘My Testimony’ by Eu Gil-ja Sa, pp. 26-30 – an essay in the Unification Theological Seminary Library, Barrytown, New York.)
▲ Choi Soon-wha (not her sister, Soon-shil, who was also a member at this time) is standing directly in front of Moon. On the left is Choi Won-pok and standing on the right is Kim Young-oon. These two Ewha Womans University professors, along with three other professors, encouraged their students to join the UC and be pikareum cleansed by Moon. All were expelled from the Christian University due to their involvement with Moon.
Soon-shil and the two professors were interrogated by the police during the 1955 Ewha scandal. In his journal Eu Hyo-won mentions seeing them at the police station when he was also arrested.
The scandal was covered in Japanese newspapers as well as in many Korean ones.
May 15, 1955 Pyunghwa Shinmun
“An untimely religious crisis at Ewha Womans University”
May 16, 1955 朝鮮日報 Chosun Ilbo
“An expulsion crisis at Ewha Womans University”
Excerpts from Eu Hyo-won’s 1955 Diary
The Unification Church wrote about Eu Hyo-won: “He systematized and preached Father’s [Sun Myung Moon’s] words and wrote Explanation of the Principles in 1957 (the first printed work on the Divine Principle) and Discourse on The Principle in 1966 (translated into English as the Divine Principle). [He was married to Sa Gil-ja in 1960.] He died on July 24, 1970. In his position as president of our family in Korea for 15 years, he wrote almost daily in his diary.”
The following extracts from Mr Eu’s diary (published in Tong-il Segye, July 1980) were translated by Hwang David Kwanil. [Some names in the diary have been re-translated, or completed, based on other sources and photographs from the period.]
“May 11, 1955
Lecturing all day to people whom 柳景圭 Kyoung-kyu [Yoo Kyoung-kyu, a student from Yonsei University – in the top photo] led to the center. Four people from Ewha University were expelled from the dormitory. I came downstairs and saw 史吉子 Gil-ja [Sa Gil-ja, later the wife of Mr Eu Hyo-won], Mong-sa, Mee-shik [申美植 Shin Mee-shik, later the wife of 崔奉春 Papasan Choi] and Myung-jin [徐明鎮 Seo Myung-jin, later the wife of 洪鍾福 Hong Chong-bok] eating.
May 14, 1955
Fourteen students were expelled by the Ewha University administration. The students seem to be very firm in faith. At 9:30. I asked Gil-ja and Mee-shik to come over for an interview with Seoul newspapers. I was lecturing to six new students from Ewha. I asked Teacher [Sun Myung Moon] to talk to them while I was gone.
▲ After their expulsion, the students managed to meet President Kim Hwallan on May 23, 1955. She stood by her decision. This picture was taken on campus after the meeting.
(Top from left) Suh Myung-jin, Lee Gye-soon*, Sa Gil-ja, Chi Seng-ryun**, Park Young-sook, Kang Jung-won and Chung Dae-hwa (who was later married to Kim Young-whi)
(Bottom from left) Choi Soon-hwa (the mother of Sam Park), Yim Seung-hee, Kim Jung-eun, Shin Mi-shik (later known as Mamasan Choi) and Park Seung-gyoo.
* Lee Gye-soon entered Kyunghee University in 1957. She left the Unification Church over 50 years ago and had a successful career as a professor.
** Before Chi Seng-ryun joined was was known as Lee Mal-sook, and after she moved to the US she also used that name.
Kim Yun-rye was also expelled but later made a pledge to give up the Unification Church, and Ewha Womans University allowed her to return to her studies.
Eight of the expelled students entered other universities in 1956.
July 4, 1955 (day of great persecution)
Today I determined to die seven times. In the evening, the newsmen came again, scurrying around, taking pictures of Teacher [Moon]. Shortly afterwards, Investigator Oh and Chief Investigator Kim came over to ask Teacher to come to the [police] station in order to tape an interview. 金永雲 Kim Young-oon and I followed them. We went into different rooms. We were told to go back home. Mr. Oh almost pushed us to the gate. Our family was there. Then we went back with them. So I was right when I thought today was persecution day.
July 5, 1955
Teacher [Moon] didn’t come back. … Tong-hi came in. He brought with him the newspaper Pyung Who. Our beloved was arrested. The time has come. Now we have to face what we are supposed to face. … We bought all the newspapers. The story in the papers was very dirty, but through dirty things we can have fertilizer.
When I went to a special investigation room, I saw 金元弼 Kim Won-pil being interrogated. Because of age problem [he had lied about his age to escape the military draft in 1951], the investigator was slapping him. It was a different feeling from what I felt in the tearoom. We were interrogated for evading the draft and for illegally confining people.
July 10, 1955
After I preached the Sunday sermon … Investigator Oh and Chief Investigator Kim came to arrest me. So I changed clothes and prepared to go. When I got there, 劉孝敏 Eu Hyo-min and 劉孝永 Eu Hyo-yeong were there, being investigated. This evening, instead of 朴正華 Pak Chong-hwa, they tried to detain us. We petitioned to leave and were allowed to return to the church.
July 11, 1955
I encouraged Yoo Kyoung-kyu, Hwan-chae [Hwang Hwan-chae, a student from Yonsei University – also in the top photo] and the students from Ewha. I asked everybody to meet at Yang’s house, with unity and love. [梁允永, 梁尹永 Yang Yoon-yeong was a professor of music who taught at both Yonsei University and Ewha Womans University – photo below.] At 4:30 I prepared for life in jail, and went to the investigation station. I also saw 催淳実 Choi Sung-sil being interrogated. He also was arrested. I was arrested at the East Gate station. …I was put with one thief and one bureaucrat. I gave these young men new hope for the future. [Choi Sung-sil is Choi Soon-shil and was a young woman, not a man. She was the sister of Sam Pak’s mother, 催淳華 Choi Soon-wha. This is confirmed in a newspaper report in Kyunghyang-sinmun, July 15th 1955 which is below.]
July 13, 1955
I was sent by a detective to the Chong No station. Already Teacher [Moon] and Sung-sil were there. … Eu Hyo-min and Eu Hyo-yeong were with them too. …
July 29, 1955
Mr. Choi came over”
[This is most probably 崔聖模 Mr. Choi Seong-mo, the father of Choi Soon-shil. He negotiated to get his daughter out of jail at around this date. There are several documents on this website that confirm her release through the influence of her rich father. LINK – Choi family, LINK – Moon used a ‘Honey Trap’ ]
Mr Eu Hyo-won’s diary:
May 26, 1955 경향 신문 京郷新聞 Kyunghyang-shinmun = Kyunghyang Daily News
An Ewha University student who was expelled because of a ‘cult’ problem has appealed for an investigation of the facts to the Ministry of Culture and Education.
An Ewha Womans University student, who had earlier been expelled from Ewha Women’s University due to her belief in a cult that goes against the Methodist belief that is the traditional religion of the school, and who attends the Seoul Unification Church (the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity), on May 25 appealed to the 文教部 Ministry of Culture and Education that her expulsion was unfair. She also attempted to ask the Ministry to review whether the Unification Church is a cult and investigate the unilateral treatment received from the school so that she can be reinstated.
According to the student, Ewha University has not been able to assert that the Unification Church really is a cult. So the school cannot conclude that the student, who is in the middle of her studies, is entertaining a false belief, yet the school expelled the student only on those grounds.
Also, on the 23rd the student petitioned the president of the school to be reinstated. However, the president refused, since the expulsion had already been done. She concluded that the expulsion was the school’s firm policy. So the student had to appeal to the Ministry of Culture and Education.
May 27, 1955 Choongang Ilbo
Is the Unification Church a deviant religion?
It is similar to nudism.
Quoting what it said were opinions of various sectors of the society… It carried a remark from a police officer: “Although we cannot yet publicize a concrete piece of evidence about their sexual practice, they seem to be connected to the New Lord Sect, those nudists in Pyungbook.” It also had a remark from Gion Che, their chief editor in Christian communication: “They understand everything in terms of sex. Their three-day brainwashing was quite convincing; however, acts that deny the Bible cannot last long. I am certain that Ewha Womans University took a wise step.”
June 4, 1955 Yonhap Shinmun
“The founder claims to be God. The members cry wildly and sing hymns, saying that diseases are cured by prayers and baptism of fire.”
June 5, 1955 Yonhap Shinmun
“Their uniqueness lies in being based on sex. Even faculty members who went there to check the situation joined them. … They deny the whole of the established church and claim they will unify the world religions.”
From a 2012 Unification Church promotional video, The Life of Rev Sun Myung Moon:
“Rev Moon had sought out Christian churches, but they only persecuted him for their misunderstanding. Because of their disbelief of the prepared foundation, he had to start anew, putting new wine in new wineskins. He had to make a new beginning to pioneer a new heaven, new earth and new age. Rev Moon’s words spread like wildfire in the universities, especially the two mission schools Yonsei and Ewha Womans University were at the center of this whirlwind…”
In the same video a UC spokeswoman, Kang Jeong-won, explains:
“The former Chairman of the National Assembly was Lee Ki-Bung. His wife was Maria Park. She was the vice president of Ewha University at the time [when a Ewha Womans University law major sophomore was expelled]. A few days later, the media turned their backs on us. They slandered us saying we were a promiscuous group that dances around naked, breaks up families and so on. That was the beginning of all the bad publicity.”
LINK to the video
Dong-sook, known as a ‘True Child’ was born March 7, 1955.
( Hee-jin, son of Sun Myung Moon, was born August 17, 1955.)
▲ Moon and Dong-sook have some resemblance to each other. She was the first child connected to Moon, as far as is known, to be born in 1955. Her mother may have been called Yang. It has been reported that she died before 1960.
▲ Dong-sook sitting on the floor at the Chongpa-dong Church in Seoul. Moon is probably holding Ye-jin. Moon asked Dong-sook to participate in the ceremonies held for the birth of Ye-jin. Dong-sook had a special position in Moon’s family. In 2012 she visited Moon in hospital during his last days, and was listed as a ‘True Child’ that September.
July 5, 1955 경향 신문 Kyunghyang Daily News page 3
The Ministry of Culture and Education recognizes the Unification Church as a 邪敎 ‘sagyo’ wicked religion (or cult) while the Unification Church denies it.
The Segae newspaper published several articles about the Unification Church. On July 6 1955 it reported that 80 students from Ewha were involved with Sun Myung Moon.
July 6, 1955 경향 신문 京郷新聞 Kyunghyang Daily News ▼
Suspicion of illegal confinement, etc.
Unification Church leader detained
This article was published two days after Moon’s arrest on violation of the military duty and adultery charges because of complaints from Seoul’s Ewha Womans University.
京郷漫評 = Kyunghyang newspaper cartoon
The sign above the door says Unification Church and HSA-UWC.
M.S. [Moon Sun-myung] of the Unification Church [as he kicks a man out]:
“Can’t you read the sign! It says ‘Female College Students Welcome’ … Eek”
Some Korean words, spoken by the women, have been removed by the UC in this sanitized copy of the cartoon.
統一敎会 and 世界基督教統一神霊協会.
◇統一敎會에메스◇ = ◇ M.S. of the Unification Church ◇
간판을 보고믈어와! 女大生歡迎인데…익크
July 6, 1955 서울일보 Seoul Daily News page 3
Moon Sun Myung was “Misleading women into fornication through eloquence”
July 6, 1955 동아일보 東亞日報 Dong-a Ilbo (East Asia Daily News, a major newspaper)
邪敎與否(사교여부)는『노 | 탓취』
“No Touch” Policy on whether the Religion is a Cult
Moon, the Leader of the Unification of Christianity Church, has been Arrested and Charged with False Imprisonment.
Moon Sun Myung (36), the leader of the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity, who has caused a sensation in the religious world, was arrested by the police on July 4th. The charges included evasion of military service and false imprisonment. Whether the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity is an orthodox religion or a wicked religion (or cult) has been the talk of the town in the religious world. The Ewha Womans University even expelled some students for believing in the religion. Their expulsion drew public criticism. The arrest of its religious leader again attracts the notice of the world.
According to the police investigation, Mr. Moon’s place of family register is Pyongyang. He apparently came down to South Korea when January 4th retreat took place [in 1951 during the Korean War]. However, he still did not follow military conscription procedures, and he even overstated his age from 36 to 43.
In addition it has been established that he falsely imprisoned Ms. Moon Young Il (not her real name, a 22-year-old Yonsei University student) for three days and forced her to adopt his new religion.
According to a police official, the arrest and interrogation of Mr. Moon are only about the alleged violations of general criminal law, and the police will adhere to a “No Touch” policy when it comes to the church’s doctrines and code.
[The name of the imprisoned student was Choi Soon-shil, the sister of Choi Soon-wha.]
While Moon was in the Seodaemun Prison, other members of the church were also interrogated by the police. Daehwa Chung was one of them:
“I was interrogated at Yongsan Police Station. I remember them asking about my address, family circumstances, the reason for my expulsion from Ewha, and my experience at the church. They took notes of my answers all right. I don’t remember who I went there with. … Some went to Chongro Station. Even now I can clearly see the scene of my interrogation; I can never forget it. … They treated us like gentlemen, because we were women and young and came just for questioning not as suspects. So I came out the same day.” (interviewed by Kim Sang Hee in August 2010 LINK)
July 7, 1955 경향 신문 Kyunghyang Daily News ▼
두꺼비 Toad [ ヒキガエル = Toad ]
안회섭 Ahn Wi-seob [cartoonist]
- 처음보는 여잔데? But I’ve never seen this woman before?
- 통일! Tong-il! Unification…
- 통일! Tong-il! Unification…
- 統一敎會! Unification Church! Yikes!
July 7, 1955 서울일보 Seoul Daily News page 3
“Four married women were violated” by Moon Sun Myung or by members of the Unification Church
July 7, 1955 동아일보 Dong-a Ilbo (East Asia Daily News)
『文敎主 (문교주)』行狀 (행장)
He posed as the son of God.
There are many women who have been sexually abused.
The behavior of Moon, the leader of the Unification Church, continues to attract attention.
Following previous report – What is the identity of The Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity which has suddenly drawn such a lot of attention to itself recently due to the arrest of its leader? Did Mr. Moon indeed sexually abuse women who believe in his religion? The authorities have disclosed the two charges against him: “avoiding military service” and “unlawful imprisonment” [of a female Yonsei University student for three days]. After comprehensive discussion, and public criticism of Mr. Moon, here is some information about the religion:
◊ Indoctrination methods – New recruits have to listen to sermons about the teachings of the religion for 72 hours (three full days). The sermons are given by Church Leader Mr. Moon. The weekly lectures on Mr Moon’s doctrines start at 10 in the morning on a Monday and run until 10 in the morning on a Thursday. If anyone doubts the teachings and wants to leave, Church Leader Mr. Moon stops them from leaving by sternly saying, “If you leave, you will die.” Mr. Moon also says, “Koreans are the people chosen by God and Pyongyang is the Jerusalem of the world.” He preaches that he is the son of God, and if a woman has a sexual relationship with him, she will give birth to a world teacher [a messiah].
◊ The behavior of a man who hunts women (a sexual predator) – Mr. Moon is an eloquent speaker. They say that when he finds women who truly believe in him, he entices them into his abode (a single room inside the said Association building) and violates them. Four victims have been identified and these women are middle-aged (over 30 years of age) with husbands. Their families are above middle class. One of them is a Mrs. Kim Soon-chang (not her real name), aged 36. She was a decent well-to-do upper class housewife, but after she fell prey to Church Leader Mr. Moon’s offerings she experienced the fate of being abandoned by her husband.
◊ The financial status of the said Association – At present the Association is renting a building. The church receives donations from its 250 members in Seoul, but they do not amount to much. So the members started [a business] taking downtown landscape photographs. They then mass produce “bromide polyamide” prints which they sell all over the city.
◊ The situation of the organization – There are branches in Busan, Taegu and elsewhere, and the headquarters are in Seoul. Each of these branches has approximately 250 members, and this makes 700 members in total. Looking at the gender balance, there are about equal numbers of men and women, and the level of education is to quite a high standard.
There were always far fewer members than the church claimed.
According to the Ph.D. thesis of Choe Joong-hyun, UC / FFWPU member number 361 joined on April 10, 1956 (ref. page 202). In February 1959 Rev. Moon had a ceremony to end the New Testament Age in which 462 members participated (thesis page 160).
The Korean War and messianic groups: Two cases in contrast (1993)
Mr. Tahk Myeong-hwan had internal UC / FFWPU documents which demonstrated that the number of churches and members was far lower than claimed by the church, which presented false statistics to the public.
▲ The Association building, known as ‘the house of three doors’, was used in 1955. From the left, 玉世賢 Mrs Ok Se-hyun and 姜賢実 Mrs Kang Hyun-shil (one of the Six Marys).
Here is a story from Dr Mose Durst, former president of the UC of America:
“Mrs. Eu Gil-ja Sa, another early member of the Seoul church, tells of an extraordinary rumor spread around 1955. The church supposedly had three doors that one had to pass through before entering the central meeting hall. One had to remove, so the rumor went, an article of clothing as one passed through each door, so that presumably one entered the final hall completely naked.” (from Durst’s 1984 book To Bigotry No Sanction)
Sun Myung Moon’s personal room was next door to the infamous ‘house of three doors’. Here are two testimonies from women who were members in 1954-1955. One of them was ‘restored’ in his room.
Choi Syn-deok 崔信德 (1921-2016) joined in 1954. Later she was Professor of Sociology at Ewha Women’s University in Seoul. Following are extracts from an article she wrote about the Unification Church in Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, Korea Branch No. 43 (1967) The introduction stated: “She was once an active member of the Tong-il Church [ UC ] and was closely associated with Mun Son-myong.”
“KOREA’S TONG-IL MOVEMENT”
“I present here a brief picture of the Tong-il Church from the sociological point of view. … Many reports have been made about these two religious bodies. [The other was Elder Park Tae-seon’s “Olive-Tree” Church.] There is, however, no one who really knows about their leaders, organizations, beliefs and practices. We have seen many families which have been destroyed, leaving unhappy husbands, sorrowful parents and miserable children because of these new religious movements. The purpose of this research is to help in the solution of these problems of disorganization of homes, and to make a scientific study about these groups, without emotional or biased opinions.
… “Before Moon’s marriage [in 1960], believers, male as well as female, who longed to meet him and talk with him could easily arrange to be with him in the living room of a home attached to the church, staying until very late. They used to talk, sing and laugh without realizing how fast the night went, until after one or two o’clock in the morning. They called this their period of direct association with the master. Its purpose was to educate and train the believers, that is, to “restore” them.” … “In July, 1955, several senior members and four leaders as well as Mr. Moon were imprisoned under an accusation of injuring public morals. (This matter was reported in papers and journals.)”
Eu Shin-hee 劉信姫 gave an interview in about 1993:
Q.1: “You were living peacefully with your husband, Mr. Shin Sung-mook, and your five children in Yeongdo, Busan. You lent one of your rooms to Moon’s congregation for a meeting. [On the recommendation of her older cousin, Eu Hyo-won, who was living nearby at the time.] Is that correct?”
Eu: “That’s right. It was on December 24, 1953. In the beginning they said they only needed the room for three days, but in the end it went on for 25 days. …”
Q.5: “You were one of the women who had pikareum with Sun Myung Moon in this way. And yet, Mrs. Eu Shin-hee, you accepted to do an interview, and are probably the first to be willing to show your face in public. How do you feel about this?”
Eu: “The reason why I remained silent to people outside [the church] until now was because I was frightened that the children would know about the reality of pikareum. At my age I can endure it, but it will affect my children and grandchildren negatively. Although this truth is a very shameful thing to talk about, I still want to clarify the facts before I die.”
Q.6: “Please explain some more details about the ‘the restoration’ with Sun Myung Moon.”
Eu: “One female member talked me into it. [at the Seoul church. It was Kim In-ju 金仁珠 who joined in 1946. She was the aunt of Kim Won-pil and first introduced him to Moon.] She led me to Sun Myung Moon’s pitch-dark room late at night. That, in my case, was how I was ‘restored.’ It was finished in just a short time, it was all over in a few moments. I was told that I should come back two more times to complete the ‘restoration,’ to clean up the satanic blood, but I had ‘restoration’ pikareum only once, and then I stopped it.”
Eu: “Sun Myung Moon had many relations with various women. I did not know when my turn would next come around, and then because I heard a very unpleasant story. There was a woman who came from the same village as me, and she had a cute daughter. From when she was small, we would hold hands and go to the mountains and rivers or to the church to pray. Later this daughter became a university student. She was still a virgin. Then Sun Myung Moon took her to his room and had sex by force with her. He took away her chastity with the excuse of ‘restoration.’
When this daughter told me, she was crying. Even if it is done in the name of ‘restoration’ it is still sexual intercourse. It doesn’t change the fact that he hurt a young woman by doing this. That is why I gave up on being ‘restored’ two more times.” LINK
In 1993 Eu Shin-hee was also interviewed by Japanese national TV.
July 14, 1955 동아일보 Dong-a Ilbo (East Asia Daily News)
Six people arrested and arraigned, including Moon, the religious leader of the ‘Unification Church’
Following Earlier Report = The investigation of the so-called ‘Incident of the Holy Spirit Association of the Unification of World Christianity,’ which had been under police investigation, has concluded with the six persons involved being arrested and arraigned yesterday, the 13th, by the Seoul District Public Prosecutor’s Office under one case file.
The persons involved in this incident are currently being questioned on charges which include violating the Military Service Act, counterfeiting official documents, and violating the National Security Act. Also, according to one investigating official, there is evidence for seven counts of adultery between sect leader Moon and his female followers. It is expected that there will be a new investigation as an adultery case, but the investigation cannot proceed because so far there have been no complaints from the husbands of the female followers who committed adultery (adultery is an offense subject to complaint, so [a case] needs a victim’s complaint for indictment).
Furthermore, establishing the adultery case will provide the standard for deciding whether the religion is or is not a cult, so the development of the prosecution’s investigation is being watched with keen interest.
♢ List of those involved (arrested and arraigned)
▲ Moon Sun Myung (Sect leader) = charges of wrongful imprisonment and of violating the Military Service Act
▲ Kim Won-pil = charges of violating the National Security Act, and violating the Military Service Act
▲ Eu Hyo-min = charges of violating the Military Service Act
▲ Eu Hyo-yeong = charges of violating the Military Service Act
▲ Eu Hyo won = charges of counterfeiting official documents
▲ Choi Soon-shil = (woman) charges of being instrumental in the conduct of fornication.
July 15, 1955 경향 신문 Kyunghyang Daily News
六名拘束 送廳 統一教會 事件
Six people arrested and detained then sent to court in the ‘Unification Church incident’.
Concerning Unification Church leader Mr Moon (Moon Sun Myung, 36) and the five key officers of the church, who are now in detention and are being interrogated at the Public Peace National Special Intelligence Bureau, the first stage of the criminal investigation has been completed. On the afternoon of the 13th [of July], all six suspects were sent to be held in detention by the Public Prosecutor’s Office.
▲ Moon Sun Myung (church leader) = Acting against the Military Service Act and wrongful imprisonment [of a female student for three days]
▲ Eu Hyo won (cadre) = Counterfeiting of official documents
▲ Eu Hyo-min ( // ) = Acting against National Security Act
▲ Eu Hyo-yeong ( // ) = Acting against the Military Service and National Security Acts
▲ Kim Won-pil ( // ) = Acting against Military Service Act
▲ Choi Soon-shil = (a female believer) 淫行媒介 being instrumental in the conduct of immoral sexual acts.
These people have been undergoing formal interrogation by public prosecutor Kang Seo-yong ( 姜瑞龍 ) of the Seoul District Public Prosecutor’s Office.
Choi Soon-shil, who confessed to group sex activities, was released because of her father’s efforts. His name was Choi Seong-mo and he was a very successful businessman. He was the grandfather of Sam Park who was born in Washington, DC. in 1966.
▲ Moon with women who had been involved in the scandal at a reunion at the Cheongpa-dong Church in Seoul in 1958. Professor Choi Won-pok is on the right. Choi Soon-wha is the fifth woman standing to the right of Moon, wearing a light gray jacket.
July 31, 1955 동아일보 Dong-a Ilbo (East Asia Daily News)
Church Leader Moon and Others Indicted in the Unification Church incident
Five persons involved in the ‘Unification Church incident,’ namely Moon Yong-myung (Church Leader, also known as Sun Myung), Eu Hyo-won, Eu Hyo-min, Kim Won-pil, and Eu Hyo-yeong have been under investigation by Prosecutor Kang Seo-yong of the Seoul District Prosecutors’ Office. On the afternoon of the 29th they were arrested and charged on charges including “violation of the Military Service Act” and “violation of the Special Measures regarding Requisitions.”
In the meantime, the Seoul District Prosecutors’ Office has been continuing its keen investigation as to whether the Unification Church Leader Moon committed “adultery.” However, since there have been no complaints from either the women allegedly victimized or their husbands, the said adultery, which has attracted a lot of attention, has not been included in the scope of these charges, and they have been charged only regarding military service matters.
▲ Another 1955 baby. Kim Myung-hee (left) with Moon Hee-jin in 1959 after their return to Korea. Kim Myung-hee had stayed at the house of Yang Yun-yeong in Seoul when she was pregnant. Moon sent her away to Japan to give birth to his child. For Kim to have the baby in Korea was a risk to himself. Moon could have been jailed for adultery again – as he had been in Pyongyang in 1946. According to the Los Angeles Times, he was jailed for bigamy in 1948. Moon wrote letters to Kim Myung-hee in Japan, but he never sent her any money. Hee-jin was born in Tokyo on August 17, 1955.
September 21, 1955 동아일보 Dong-a Ilbo (East Asia Daily News)
어제첫公判 統一教會 事件 ( 공판통일교회사건 )
Yesterday the first trial was held in the ‘Unification Church incident’
On September 20, ‘Unification Church’ leader Moon Sun Myung (real name, Moon Yong Myung), aged 36, appeared for the first day of his trial in Seoul District Court No. 4. At the 10:30a.m. hearing the presiding judge was Yoon Hak-no ( 尹學老 ) and the prosecutor was Kang Seo-yong ( 姜瑞龍 ) who was handling the prosecution of Moon Sun Myung. [The afternoon hearing was at 2:30p.m.] On this day the court was jam-packed with many women who seemed to be ‘Unification Church’ believers.
Defendant Moon, who has been much talked about concerning multiple alleged adulteries, on the day only stood as a defendant for charges of Military Service Act violations. This is because there were no complaints from the alleged victims. Along with him, other defendants from the same church stood trial as well: Kim Won-pil (28, violated the Military Service Act, and had raised his age by six years), Eu Hyo-won (42, failed to report to military record), Eu Hyo-min (36, same charge as above), and Eu Hyo-yeong (35, same charge as above).
As soon as the court session began the prosecution read the list of indictments and then the investigation into the facts proceeded. Defendant Moon did admit that he had raised his age. The legal profession still had two arguments about whether raising one’s age, even when the person subject to the draft was over 32 or 33 years old, was a violation of the Military Service Act. Nevertheless, Prosecutor Kang, in the bill of indictment, pointed out that defendant Moon “had raised his age to avoid the draft (military service) in accordance with the Christian doctrine against injuring others or taking life”.
September 21, 1955 서울新聞 Seoul Shinmun Seoul Daily News
Violation of military service is admitted [by Sun Myung Moon to the judge in the court]
Unification Church incident public hearing / public trial
Female followers pray during the court proceedings
Robert W. Roland
He testified to the US Fraser Committee investigation of Sun Myung Moon and his organization in 1978. He commented on the Ewha scandal:
“Moon was eventually charged and jailed but was ultimately released when the young girls, in their misplaced shame, refused to testify publicly. …”
Apparently a large number of young women claimed their right to remain silent in court.
September 22, 1955 동아일보 Dong-a Ilbo (East Asia Daily News)
Religious leader Moon given two years in the ‘Unification Church incident’ prosecution.
Following earlier report: The first trial regarding the ‘Unification Church incident’ started on the 20 [September 1955]. After investigating the facts, prosecutor Kang Seo-yong ( 姜瑞龍 ), recommended the following terms for the defendants:
▲ Moon Sun Myung (religious leader) = Imprisonment for two years
▲ Eu Hyo-won = Imprisonment for two years
▲ Kim Won-pil, Eu Hyo-min and Eu Hyo-yeong
= Each person imprisonment for one year and six months
▲ Around the same time, there was an uproar about the Unification Church at Yonsei University. An Byong-mu 安柄茂 (above), who was Chairman of the Korea Theological Institute (now Professor Emeritus) said:
“There was an active campaign to recruit believers at Yonsei University by a woman, Professor B. [Most probably she was Professor Yang Yun-yeong 梁允永 who taught music at both Ewha and Yonsei universities.] She also came to invite me. I thought she was quite a beauty. I wondered about this new religion; why had such an attractive woman joined this cult? At that time she said, “Rev. Moon always talks one-to-one with women believers in the room. He talks in a high-pitched tone for hours on end. The woman then ends up becoming a fervent believer.” After all this, Professor B [Yang] was made to retire, and some students were also expelled at the time.”
週刊ポスト Shūkan Post October 15, 1993, pages 212 to 215 LINK
October 5, 1955 동아일보 Dong-a Ilbo (East Asia Daily News)
Church Leader Moon Found Not Guilty in the ‘Unification Church incident’
The verdict in the Seoul District Court trial with regards to the matter known as the ‘Unification Church incident’ took place at 10:50am yesterday the 4th in Court No. 4. The presiding judge Yoon Hak-no ( 尹學老 ) rendered verdicts as follows: “not guilty” for Church Leader Moon, monetary penalty for one person, and jail sentences for the remaining three persons.
◊ Verdict (With the sentences previously given by the prosecution in brackets):
▲ Moon Sun Myung = not guilty (two years in prison)
▲ Eu Hyo-won = fined 5,000 won (two years in prison)
▲ Eu Hyo-min ▲ Eu Hyo-yeong ▲ Kim Won-pil
= Each detained in prison for eight months and suspended detention for sixty days in total (one year and six months in prison)
▲ Moon was released after dark, at 9:40pm on October 4, 1955. There had been a brief hearing earlier that day where, according to the diary of Eu Hyo-won, “Chief Judge Yoon Hak-no proclaimed that Teacher was innocent” in spite of the fact that Moon had admitted his guilt in court on September 20. Oh Yeong-choon’s testimony sheds light on what happened.
Oh Yeong-choon 呉永春 raised large sums of money and visited the lawyers and the prosecutor. This testimony was written before she left the church.
“… To backtrack a bit, in the beginning of June 1955, Father called me. He told me that Ewha University was trying to cause problems and to go borrow some money. Though there were many members, most of the members were new and did not have money. Father had no one he could trust and talk to about it. That was a time when we were not so well off financially. However, I had to get the money even if it put me into debt. I have never disobeyed Father. My heart became restless and beat hard. Luckily, I had credit with someone I knew. The interest rate was 10 percent. Nothing scared me in those days. I borrowed 100,000 Won, another 100,000 Won and then 300,000 Dong Seok and I presented it to Father. Father would not even touch or look at it. Mr. Noh Dong-hwi 盧東輝 would take it. A month later, I thought we had closed all the loopholes, but then another loophole opened. Investigators took Father in on July 4, but he did not come back. We were completely shocked.
“A few days later, the four leaders were also taken in. There were not any members with whom I could discuss details about the problem, so I had no choice but to start a gye. I thought that our first priority was to free Father. I heard that there was a person named Jo Dong-seok, among our members, who had some experience with the police. Trusting him, I started giving him money to carry out the task of freeing Father. Lump sums of about 200,000 Won, 300,000 Won and 500,000 Won had to be invested. We would meet a prosecutor one day, and then meet a lawyer the next day. Whenever I met these people, the only thing that was discussed was money as though I owned a bank. If I could not meet a person, I would go around looking for the person. I had to find money haphazardly.
“Creditors constantly kept asking for their money. I was in a completely tight position. Four months passed in this manner. I was so heavily in debt, but I never regretted it nor blamed it on anyone. I did not feel any pang of conscience because I did it for the God’s will and voluntarily. At times, I even got loans with a 30 percent interest rate. My heart was at ease no matter what other people said. The only painful part was not being able to pay back the money.
“To make money, I decided to start a business, a thing I had never done in my life. I opened a shop in Yongsan Station that depended on business from the nearby army base. I ran it with In Shik Lee. Mr. Lee was in charge of the labor and I invested a million won. However, I did not have much time to myself. I did not even have time to eat or sleep because I had to visit Father and find money. I left the business in the hands of two single women, Seung Gyu Park and Gye Wol Park, and only came back at night. My goal was Father’s acquittal and discharge. I could not think of myself, and I had to look for money. I was ready to go to prison if I could not pay the creditors back. The only priority in my mind was how to free Father and the leaders who had been taken in.
“Soldiers continued coming to Yongsan Station until 2 AM and by 4 AM they started swarming in. I could only sleep for two hours. To receive a [prison] visitation ticket [to visit Father], I had to reach Seodaemun Prison by six o’clock in the morning and wait in line first.
“To tell the truth, Mrs. Choi Seon-gil 催先吉 [Moon’s first wife] had joined hands with Ewha [Womans] University to cause problems that brought about the July 4 incident. When our innocent Father was in Seodaemun Prison, our members visited Mrs. Choi Seon-gil every day, exerting all kinds of efforts to persuade her, bowing to her and begging her to resolve the problem peacefully. She was very obstinate about it, as though she had done what she was supposed to do. With heaven’s help, Father was acquitted within three months. Mrs. Choi, too, seemed to think she did not have much choice anymore and agreed to sign the papers in exchange for a certain amount of money. I got the money through the members. It was now over.” LINK
Over two years later, Choi Seon-gil divorced Sun Myung Moon – on January 8, 1957. Moon had committed adultery and had fathered one or two (or more) known children in 1955. According to other sources there were further children fathered by Moon between 1950 and 1980; at least two of them were sons. Some women had abortions – according to Mr Pak, Mr Eu paid for one abortion after Moon refused to do so.
From 1953 to 2015 adultery was a jail-able offense in Korea – if a spouse complained to the authorities.
Oh Yeong-choon moved to the US in 1972 to avoid her Korean creditors.
▲ Moon Sun Myung, with four of the five the followers who had been imprisoned with him, soon after they were all released. Standing, Moon and Eu Hyo-won (later he was church president); seated, left to right, Eu Hyo-min, Kim Won-pil, Eu Hyo-yeong.
Pak Chong-hwa said this about Moon’s 1955 arrest:
“Because of his disturbing the social order with women in Pyongyang, he was sent to Heungnam [prison in 1948]. Thanks to the members in Seoul, who out of desperation committed perjury and frantically moved or destroyed evidence, [Moon] was said to be acquitted. But the facts had roots. He would otherwise have had a long prison sentence.”
Professor James Huntley Grayson, Korea – A Religious History
320 pages (New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 1989, revised 2002)
page 210: “In July 1955, Mun was imprisoned for gross immorality, but was subsequently released.”
page 211: “As one of the most important functions of the Lord of the Second Advent is the physical restoration of mankind, Mun selects suitable marital partners for the faithful and conducts sacred ceremonies of marriage in large groups. It should be noted with regard to the purging of physical sin that Mun has been accused of acts of gross immorality which are denied by church authorities.”
Robert Boettcher, Gifts of Deceit – Sun Myung Moon, Tong-sun Park and the Korean Scandal (1980)
“Rumors reached the American Embassy that Moon was a ritual womanizer. Reportedly, young girls underwent sexual initiation into his cult; he would thus purge them of the Satanic spirits that inhabited Eve and lead them to the Divine Principle. He was jailed for three months in 1955 by South Korean authorities on charges reported by newspapers and government agencies as draft evasion, forgery, ‘pseudo-religion,’ and false imprisonment of a university coed compelled to adopt his religion.” (page 35)
William J Petersen, Those Curious New Cults (1975)
“According to the Rev. Won-Il Chei, a leading Presbyterian minister in Seoul, “If we believe those who have gone into the group and come out, they say that one has to receive Sun Myung Moon’s blood to receive salvation. That blood is ordinarily received by three periods of sexual intercourse. But this fact they themselves keep absolutely secret.”
A Japanese book, The Madness in Japan by Arao Arai, charges that Moon used to teach that “in order to purify oneself of the Satanic blood we inherited and in order to go to heaven after death, humans must have intercourse with those who have God’s blessings. This is what they call the ritual of blood-sharing or ritual of holy spirit exchange.””
The reputation of Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church was so dirty that they resorted to paying members to join, according to a 1963 CIA report.
CIA intelligence reports were among a sheaf of intelligence summaries, diplomatic cables, governmental memorandums and other documents made public by the Fraser subcommittee as it opened four days of hearings on Korean efforts to influence American policy.
The first mention of the Unification Church came in a United States Central Intelligence Agency report dated Feb. 26, 1963…
On the Unification Church, an intelligence report said: “Members of the church are actively engaged in increasing membership in farming villages. The church apparently has considerable money, because it pays influential people in the villages a substantial sum for joining the church.”
The subcommittee released many other documents tracing the founding and expansion of the Korean Cultural and Freedom Foundation — which eventually claimed former Presidents Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower as honorary chairmen — into a KCIA front for fund-raising and lobbying efforts.
The wife of the UC president at the time, Sa Gil-ja, explains further about the 1955 Ewha Womans University Sex Scandal. She was one of the students who was expelled. Here are some extracts from her April 12, 1986 testimony.
“In 1955 Ewha University and Yonsei University started heavy persecution. Because of this the Korean government, all established churches, and all educated people started to persecute the Unification Church. People even wanted the government to stop the movement, to wipe it out. At that time we could not reach any high-level or educated people, so Father sent us out to the countryside to educate these poor farmers’ children.
“We couldn’t say we were from the Unification Church because of our bad reputation, but we could teach them basic things, such as how to read and write Korean or Chinese or English. Through this they became connected to us and some of these young people eventually joined. They went to 7-day workshop, 21-day workshop, and 40-day workshop. Then they left their parents and their farms and became pioneers for the church.
“Of course, their parents were very angry with them because they needed their children to do the farm labor. The children more or less escaped from their families. As pioneers they were very poor, so sometimes they would try to go back to their parents and beg them for a little rice or some money, in order to be able to continue their mission on the front line. But often their parents wouldn’t give them anything.”
▲ Six of the expelled students entered Sookmyung Women’s University in 1956 and later graduated. They are with their parents on their graduation day.
(from left) Shin Mi-shik, Chung Dae-hwa, Kim Gyung-shik, Suh Myung-jin, Sa Gil-ja and Kim Jung-eun.